A Study of a Quality of Work Life Among the Magnetic Resonance Imaging Technologists in National Guard Health Affairs Hospitals in KSA

A Study of a Quality of Work Life Among the Magnetic Resonance Imaging Technologists in National Guard Health Affairs Hospitals in KSA

Running head: RESEARCH PROPOSAL 1

RESEARCH PROPOSAL 16

Research Proposal: A Study of a Quality of Work Life Among the Magnetic Resonance Imaging Technologists in National Guard Health Affairs Hospitals in KSA

Background

This study is on the quality of work-life among the magnetic resonance imaging technologists in Nhe national Guard hHealth Affairs hospitals. this project will focus on quality of work-life affects overall performance.

Quality of work-life is described as “the point to which caretakers were delighted about their significant individual requirements, which are safety, opportunity, growth, as well as elements of an organization, which are improved productivity, reduced turnover throughout their participation in their work structure when accomplishing the goals of an organization” (Brooks and Anderson 2004). There are previous studies related to this research area which highlight the issue of job satisfaction, quality of work-life, performance, and overall outcomes in the healthcare field. One study proposed that quality of work-life can be channeled to the strengthenemployees to meet their performance requirements and enhance their experiences at work (Thomas, Simmons & Mares, 1984). There are three(These are four not three? 1) Meaningfulness 2)Pessimism 3) Job Satisfaction 4) Self-Confidence Please review??) variables of quality of work-life: meaningfulness, pessimism regarding a change in the organization, and job satisfaction, and self- confidence. These three quality of work-life variables are associated with workers perception of job satisfaction (Chitra and Mahalakshmi 2012). Another study found that to promote quality of work-life in healthcare institutions we should concentrate on external and fundamental characteristics as well as improving workers independence and choices (Lewis, 2010).

One study showcased a clear connection between quality of work-life and job satisfaction, assessing external and fundamental characteristics such as wages and various forms of compensations as well as structural characteristics that incorporate challenge, autonomy, communication, and skill levels into the work environment and how these aspects can predict worker satisfaction with quality of work-life in the field of healthcare, (Blegen, 1993). One more study proposed that building and keeping a good work-life for healthcare professionals, including magnetic resonance imaging technologsts is critical to improve productivity, increase turnover, increase job satisfaction, and enhance overall care outcomes. Those determinants could lead to a more powerful quality of work-life and improve holding rates and therefore strengthen the stabilization of workers and longevity (Almalki, FitzGerald & Clark, 2012). In this project we investigate the outcomes of previous studies and determine new factors which are essential to increase quality of work life and its current situation in among the magnetic resonance imaging technologists in National Guard Health Affairs hospitals.

Literature Review

Quality of Work Life (QWL):

Quality of work life is a thoughtful collection of worker perspectives that views the worker as the most critical asset of a community and an organization as they are honest, responsible and proficient,offering relevant participation and resulting productivity. Quality of work-life can be channeled to the strength of employees to meet their performance requirements and enhance their experiences at work (Thomas, Simmons & Mares, 1984). Part of the quality of work life is the connection among workers and their entire operating environment with a social dimension. Quality of work life is a broad concept that considers worker wellbeing and views their work experience is essential, and maintains that is must be satisfying, and producing minimal pressure.. In the health-care environment, QWL is linked to leadership, work policies, and other services and each of these elementshas a contemplative impact on how the workers see their place in an organization (Krueger, Markon, Patrick, Benning & Kramer, 2007).

Magnetic Resonance Imaging Technologists and nurses work equivalent working hours, have similar work conditionsand pressure. sMagnetic Resonance Imaging Technologists and nurses must deal with similar difficulties in various aspects such as supporting family responsibilities with work, delays throughout practice, and in performing non-work related duties. Also, co-workers support, high workload, teamwork, and interaction with different specializations are all part and parcel of these health care professionals daily work expectations. Other challenges they face such as are career progression, training, and financial benefit, and adjustable scheduling all potentially impact their quality of work-life. According to previous research, quality of work-life is “the point to which caretakers were delighted about their significant individual requirements, which are safety, opportunity, growth, as well as elements of an organization, which are improved productivity, reduced turnover throughout their participation in their work structure when accomplishing the goals of an organization” (Brooks and Anderson 2004). 

Quality of work-life (QWL) is a construct that has been much analyzed and certified as a means to increase worker professional growth, productivity and achievement (Brooks and Anderson 2004). It is also used to develop and enhance work conditions to enable workers to become more active and vital within the organization.Therefore, performance, procedures and policies that create the experience of work should include more tasks that are satisfying for the worker. These policies and procedures could include elements to promote independence, giving credit for work well done, belongingness or loyalty, skill development, and external rewards. Human resources recruitment and staffing may be positively impacted by employee(Employee or worker? Which word do you prefer?) quality of work-life (QWL). Quality of work life is a means to provide attention to the needs and demands of workers with a view towards their needs both on the job and their lives outside of work. (Thomas, Simmons & Mares, 1984).

Poweful Quality of work-life (QWL) can influence the commitment and contribution of the workers in any healthcare institution like National Guard Health Affairs Hospitals. Consequently, robust quality of work life is necessary to bring in new workers and encourage workers to remain. Hence, most health institutions are investigating methods to discuss issues of retention and recruitment through accomplishing a great quality of work-life aesthetic (Almalki et al. 2012). Extending the comfort and well-being of workers by giving great quality of work-life could occur in several benefits for the organization, workforce, and consumers. Furthermore, that will require organizational engagement, increasing the quality of interest, and improving overall productivity. Another major determinant is the quality of attention given to the patient, which significantly connected to the quality of work-life situation for Magnetic Resonance Imaging Technologist and other providers of healthcare. Hence, enhancing the quality of work-life may improve team performance, reduce absenteeism, burnout, and rising turnover rates.

Quality of work-life aims to promote and sustain satisfaction of a worker to increase productivity to accomplish the goal and objectives of an organization (Thomas, Simmons & Mares, 1984). Regarding the impact of quality of work life and organizational responsibility, data reveals that quality of work-life has a definite effect on organization responsibilities, which highlight the significance of quality of work-life evaluation. Moreover, recent research carried on healthcare providers from various hospitals imposed the quality of work-life and organization administration. The conclusion reveals that that quality of work-life progressively related to organization achievement (Thomas, Simmons & Mares, 1984).

Determinants Influencing Quality of Work Life (QWL) Work Frame:

There is a growing collection of research about evaluating the quality of work-life for healthcare professionals; nevertheless, it seems to not or limited personal effort estimated magnetic resonance imaging technologists quality of work-life, especially in a country like Saudi Arabia. Little is understood about the difficulties that magnetic resonance imaging technologist must deal with in their daily work life. In this research, we have noted the limited analysis of quality of work-life of magnetic resonance imaging technologist. Therefore we chose to use prior literature in this respect that has focused on nurses due to the similarities detailed above. A certified nurse and magnetic resonance imaging technologist share comparable work conditions, pressure, and working hours. Furthermore, they work collectively in several fields in the hospital like National Guard Health Affairs Hospitals. The sequence of the data concerning the quality of work-life and magnetic resonance imaging technologists/ nurses quality of work-life reveals various similar standardized descriptive standards (Lu, Kong, Song, Li & Wang, 2019). For instance, supplies availability, work tasks, security, education, staffing, and individual success are typically part of quality of work life. According to Brooks and Anderson 2004 conceptual frame is combined into four dimensions: 

1. Work world

2. Work context 

3. Work life-home life 

4. Work design 

We must differentiate between career satisfaction and job satisfaction when studying magnetic resonance imaging technologist quality of work-life Career satisfaction is defined as the well-being of worker in the physical and external dimensions of the work. That is incorporating career progression, opportunities, and payment(

What does this mean “payment for the community?”) for the community. Job satisfaction is the heartfelt condition:happiness as arising from the responsibility, independence andstrength of the work experience. Job satisfaction is connected with huge achievement and maintenance of such achievement, whereas job dissatisfaction is a significant cause for large team turnover and defection. Data highlights how important it is for administrators and researchers to know how job satisfaction is connected to the outcomes, absenteeism, intention to leave, conscientiousness, and staff commitment, in an organization and each worker way that negatively influences the institution or its territory. The relation of quality of work-life and job satisfaction and is one of the fundamental variables in work environments and an essential symbol of quality of work life. 

Chitra weighed the perception of workers on quality of work-life and job satisfaction. There are three variables of quality of work-life, such as meaningfulness, pessimism regarding a change in the organization, and job satisfaction, and self- confidence. The They concluded that these three quality of work-life variables were significantly associated with job satisfaction and workers perception. Quality of work-life further immediately correlated to job satisfaction. It explains the high relevance of quality of work-life and job satisfaction and how they are interrelated (Chitra D and V Mahalakshmi 2012).

In Meta-Analysis of 48 research studies on+ttg5 work satisfaction in more than 15,000 healthcare providers revealed that job satisfaction was inversely correlated with decreased work pressure, commitment for the organization, interaction with administrators, independence, worker acceptance, honesty, professionalism, education, and years of experience. Also, the researchers discovered a clear connection between job satisfaction and quality of work-life (Blegen, Mary A 1993). In one context considered whether external and fundamental characteristics can divine worker satisfaction with quality of work-life in the field of healthcare. External aspects like wages and different substantial compensations and structural characteristics incorporate challenge, autonomy, communication, and skill levels. The entire sample was 5486 participants, with a total answer rate of 33 %. The conclusions showed that communication, style, supervisor, benefits, and pay were the significant determinants in defining Quality of Work-Life satisfaction. Nevertheless, the writers clearly stated that they could not conclude the judgments due to the low response rate of participants. Ultimately, the research found that to promote Quality of Work Life in healthcare institutions, and we might concentrate on external and fundamental characteristics as well as improving workers independence and choices (Lewis, 2010).

The determinants influencing the quality of work-life of magnetic resonance imaging technologists and nurses will be a strong meansto estimate the intention of the worker to leave. This information will assist administrators and healthcare officers in designing policies to enhance work conditions. Such growth will increase the overall state of healthcare professionals and improve job satisfaction. In adjusting the work-life balance, the organization will increase the performance of the worker, quality of patient care, and productivity of an organization. All those accomplishments can help to engage workers and reduce turnover intentions. Building and keeping an excellent work-life for healthcare professionals, including magnetic resonance imaging technologist is critical to improve productivity, increase turnover, increase job satisfaction, and enhance overall care consequence. Those determinants could drive to a more powerful quality of work-life and improve holding rates and therefore strengthening the stabilization of workers (Almalki, FitzGerald & Clark, 2012)( There is some repetition of ideas – you have seen I have made major edits of the sentence structure and language…its too wordy and using simpler language will help the reader understand your point quicker…we need to look again at organizing the flow of thought here to clean it up more).

Expert burnout is an emotional construct extensively investigated in the literature of healthcare. Burnout can be related to three psychological features of human beings the reduced personal achievements, depersonalization, and emotional exhaustion that happen between people who serve others (Guntupalli, Wachtel, Mallampalli & Surani, 2014). Burnout has a somewhat related influence of low quality of work-life and decreased job satisfaction since the results of burnout is connected with both the healthcare patients and provider. The impact of significant burnout is connected with negative attitudes, unsatisfactory job performance, emotional problems, psychological problems, physical illness, and absenteeism. Weak communication and negligence is the standard negative belief that patients encounter with providers of healthcare experiencing improved burnout. 

In one setting in America, found a high level of expert burnout between magnetic resonance imaging technologist and nurses. Approximately half of the respondents described being emotionally drained, and approximately 40 % stated the shortage of individual success (Guntupalli, Wachtel, Mallampalli & Surani, 2014). 

Burnout and job satisfaction may connect with the purpose of magnetic resonance imaging technologist to go. The drop in job performance is linked to improved anxiety, exhaustion, and use to move. Workers burnout to job pressure and other determinants were comfort with work, supports of the co-workers, and co-workers, also job independence, job control, attention by magnetic resonance imaging technologist, and role accuracy. In different words, when job satisfaction increases, the burnout reduced. Therefore, when burnout reduces the absenteeism, and plan to go will reduce. It highlighted the significance of quality of work-life to develop workers performance and outcome of an organization (National Guard Health Affairs Hospitals).

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Technologists:

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) professionals are qualified in managing equipment of radiology imaging, which doctors utilize to get examinations. A degree of the associate is expected to achieve in this profession, and licensure is needed in a few countries. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) professionals are a member of the radiology imaging club. They manage Magnetic(We need to check for unnecesary capitalization in the middle of sentences) resonance imaging instruments to produce pictures that physicians can diagnose disease and damage. Magnetic resonance imaging technologists frequently have a degree of associates. Also, Magnetic resonance imaging technologists may require to have particular permits or undergo certification exams before they are allowed to begin to practice or to reissue or recertify periodically to continue to do so.

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Professionals Information:

The Saudi Arabia market of magnetic resonance imaging is forecasted to increase at a CAGR of 3.51 % to touch the US $ 0.103 billion by the year of 2024, from US $ 0.084 billion in the year of 2018(Reference your source after each statement of fact). The market of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in Saudi Arabia is moving owing to the ubiquity of the ageing community, and the predominance of incurable illnesses. Moreover, increasing health expense is increasing the market extension throughout the estimated time. Also, increasing research exercises will give a chance for installations of MRI for analysis and clinical goals throughout the prediction phase and ahead. Market intelligence is shown in the kind of investigation, tables, and graphics to assist the customers in getting a more active and practical knowledge of the Saudi Arabia market of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Influential industry professionals profiled as a member of the paper are Hitachi, Canon Medical Systems Corporation, Koninklijke Philips N.V., Siemens Healthineers, and General Electric Company, LtdN(Need references for this)

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Career Learning of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Professionals:

The pharmaceutical society has seen magnetic resonance imaging to be a unique domain of distinguishing pharmaceutical medicine;the first MRI scan was created in the year of 1974. Since then, magnetic resonance imaging has become a preferable means to support physician diagnosis of disease as they give accurate pictures of organs and tissue of humans than X-rays can give. A further advantage of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technology is that victims are shown to suffer lower radioactivity levels. This is an advantage for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technologists. Their work with these tools does not subject them to the number of emissions found by their professional co-workers, who serve with imaging tools such as PET,CAT scanners and X-rays.

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technologists explain their methods to patients, prepare them for examination, and ensure that the subjects are protected throughout the procedure. The technologist prepares the images and shifts them onto film for the physician and radiologist to examine. Technologists posess an effective understanding of the machine, including how the person should be positioned to achieve the most helpful diagnostic pictures. In pediatric trials, the professionals frequently operate jointly with an anesthesiologist, as many small children need to be sedated for the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method.

A certified magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technologist most often serves in hospital settings; many magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technologists are additionally accessible in separate departments and government buildings. The army, for instance, has encompassed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technology and staffs multiple technologists. However, the bulk of technologists work within the private sector.

Registration and Certification:

While not registration neither certification is needed on an entry-level, technologists will discover more significant chances for work and advancement once they have achieved both registration and certification. Once the level of certification has been achieved, the technologist is registered with the institution. Technologists need to renew the registration on a yearly base, and proceeding training classes are needed before renewal. Serving as a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technologist or technician is an excellent job for someone who is fascinated with technology and healthcare. Salaries differ based on area, although the state average in the year of 2018 was above $ 72,000.The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics noted the average yearly wages for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) professionals through $ 72,230 (Can you find local data? SAR?).

Objectives of the Study

Aim of the Study:

This research aims to estimate the quality of life of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technologist or workers in national guard health affairs hospitals, Saudia Arabia using interviewing technique and survey among the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technologist or workers in national guard health affairs hospitals. It aims to investigate its important determinants so that tailored measures can be used to enhance the quality of life of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technologist or workers in national guard health affairs hospitals.

Specific Objectives:

1. determine the current situation or condition of the quality of work-life

2. determine the factors that can influence the quality of work-life

3. confirm that job satisfaction can influence the quality of work-life

determine that the condition of quality of work-life has an impact on the performance (simplify)

Suggestion for answer:

1- To establish an evidence for QWL for MRI Technologist practioners

1. To determine factors influencing the level of quality of work life for MRI Technologist in King Abdulaziz Medical Cities in In Riyadh, Dammam, Jeddah, AlHasa, and Almadenah Almourah, Saudi Arabia.

2- To identify the level of satisfaction under 5 point of scale with virous factor

Secondary Objectives:

The secondary objectives of this study include the determinants that can affect the quality of work-life of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technologist or workers in national guard health affairs hospitals. Other health care providers and workers behavior and connection between the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technologist and its impact on their performance. The importance of working hours, pressure of work, and attitudes of co-workers with the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technologist on their quality of work-life in national guard health affairs hospitals is also a secondary objective of this study.

Methodology

Materials and Methods

The questionnaire method is used in this research to collect the information needed. As it is a cross-sectional study, the data which is required is primary (working conditions and life)of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technologist in national guard health affairs hospitals to gather the personal perceptions and opinions of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technologist. The questionnaire will be in English The instrumentwas adapted from Brooks B,

Study Area/Setting:

2. The area and setting of this research are conducted in the National guard health affairs hospitals located in Saudi Arabia (Locations, national network of how many hospitals? Answer: Cities in In Riyadh, Dammam, Jeddah, AlHasa, and Almadenah Almourah, Saudi Arabia.

. It is necessary because the subject and target population are the workers of particularly these hospitals. The data which is need is all conducted from the National guard health affairs hospitals including.Study Subjects:

The study subject is Quality of work-life, National guard health affairs hospitals located in Saudi Arabia, and Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technologist(Grades, male and female , saudi and non saudi you need to specify Answer: all male and female saudia and non saudia even the SCDP ( Saudia Career Development Program)).

Study Design: This is a cross‐sectional study conducted in national guard health affairs hospitals, Saudi Arabia between September and October 2019. A self‐ administrated survey received work-related data of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technologist, quality of life with health-related, and social- demographic data.

Sample Size:The sample size of this research is approximately 50 to 60. There is about 50 to 60 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technologist in guard health affairs hospitals all over Saudi Arabia, so the sample size is limited but the data collected is first hand and based on personal experience of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technologist.

Sampling Technique:

The sampling technique, which is used in this research, is cluster sampling technique. All the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technologists are the cluster group among other health providers workers, and the survey is conducted from them. This is because the target population of this study is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technologists of the National guard health affairs hospitals.

Data Collection methods, instruments used, measurements :

The questionnaire will use for data collection of this study(How will the questionnaire be delivered? Online link, tablet, paper? You need to provide these details answer: Throgh Online survey monkey link )

. The demographic data, the study tool employed in this research is a survey of the quality of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technologists work life. This survey is produced to cover the Quality work life (QWL) amongst registered magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technologists. It is a self-fulfilment survey with 42 things broken into four sub-scales: (a) work world, (b) work context, (c) work design, and (d) work life/ home life. The dimension of work-life/ home life is defined as the interface between the work and home life of the nurse. The work design dimension is the composition of nursing work and describes the actual work that nurses perform. The work context dimension includes the practice settings in which nurses work and explores the impact of the work environment on both nurse and patient systems. Finally, the work world dimension is described as the consequences of large societal impacts and variations in the usage of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The tool requires respondent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technicians how much they disagree or agree with every part on a scale of 6-point, with symbolizing 1. strongly disagree, 2. moderately disagree, 3. disagree, 4. agree, 5. moderately agree, and 6. strongly agree.

Data Management and Analysis Plan:

Complete examinations were conducted utilizing SPSS 17 version. Work‐related variables and social demographic of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technologists are expressed as medians with standard deviations for constant variables and percentages and frequencies and for independent variables. The MCS and PCS records and records for the SF‐36 eight dimensions are measured utilizing the algorithms provided with the copyright proprietors. A t-test was will performed to determine the variations among magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technologists’ records and the general community standards. Linear regression examinations for Multi variables will be presented with every dimension, and survey records as dependent variables, individually. An ANOVA and an independent samples t-test and are carried out to discover each important distinction in Quality work life (QWL) records through demographic variables. Essential distinctions are determined according to salary per month, positional tenure, organizational tenure, nursing tenure, nationality, dependent adults, dependent children, marital status, age, and gender. The eta squared test for those demographics symbolizes little to a medium impact measurement of the change in Quality work life (QWL) records. 

Ethical Considerations

The IRB approval will be sought from KAIMRC-NGHA

● The study will be conducted in full accordance with the Protocol and the current

revision of the Declaration of Helsinki, the Good Clinical Practice.

● Participation will be obtained voluntarily for participants.

● The investigator will assure that the privacy and confidentiality of the

participants, including their personal information, will be maintained at all times.

● No data will be used for any purpose other than what is stated in this proposal.

This research will be presented for the permission of the Institutional Review Board (IRB) at King Saud Medical City. Members will be permitted to depart from my research at any moment without any type of negative effect on them. We will maintain the confidentiality of data as we will not providing unapproved access to information. Anonymity will be guarded for each member through not using personal identifiers like their job, experience, name, contact number. In this research process, we will give a serial number to all the members as an identity. We will demand a permission reservation for the research. The research will not have attached or forced venture on members. We will utilize a self-described survey that intends to enhance magnetic resonance images technicians’ understanding of healthcare processes. Based on this, the abandonment of informed permission is verified. But, we will utilize data sheet that will be added to the survey, so that, each member can know the aim of the research, the voluntary assistance, what it includes, and how people can interact with the investigation team for more knowledge.

Workplan

Task MONTH
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Preparing final proposal and plan
IRP
Data Collection
Data Analysis
Writing results
Witing Discussion
Submission

Bibliographic References

Almalki, M., FitzGerald, G., & Clark, M. (2012). The relationship between quality of work life and turnover intention of primary health care nurses in Saudi Arabia. BMC Health Services Research, 12(1).

BLEGEN, M. (1993). Nurses?? Job Satisfaction. Nursing Research, 42(1), 36???41.

Brooks, B., & Anderson, M. (2004). Nursing Work Life in Acute Care. Journal of Nursing Care Quality, 19(3), 269-275.

Brooks BA: Development of an instrument to measure quality of nurses’ worklife. 2001, University of Illinois at Chicago: Health Sciences Center, Ph.D. Thesis

D. Chitra and V. Mahalakshmi (2015). A Study on Stress Management among the Employees of Banks. International Journal of Social Science & Interdisciplinary Research, Vol. 44 (1), pp.95-101.

Guntupalli, K., Wachtel, S., Mallampalli, A., & Surani, S. (2014). Burnout in the intensive care unit professionals. Indian Journal Of Critical Care Medicine, 18(3), 139-143.

Krueger, R., Markon, K., Patrick, C., Benning, S., & Kramer, M. (2007). Linking antisocial behavior, substance use, and personality: An integrative quantitative model of the adult externalizing spectrum. Journal Of Abnormal Psychology, 116(4), 645-666.

Lewis, C. (2010). Editorial Leadership and management in social work. Social Work And Social Sciences Review, 14(1), 3-4. BLEGEN, M. (1993). Nurses?? Job Satisfaction. Nursing Research, 42(1), 36???41. Simmons, J. (1984). Productivity and the Quality of Work Life in Hospitals. Journal Of Ambulatory Care Management, 7(2), 80-81.

Lu, J., Kong, J., Song, J., Li, L., & Wang, H. (2019). The health‐related quality of life of nursing workers: A cross‐sectional study in medical institutions. International Journal Of Nursing Practice, 25(4).

Thomas, R., Simmons, J., & Mares, W. (1984). Working Together. Contemporary Sociology, 13(4), 490.

Appendices:

Questionnaire

Add the new questionnaire here

Add to the references( QoWL copyright )

 
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