This week’s assignments:
Here is the week 1 forum reply. 450 words, minimum of 2 scientific references. APA format.
This week, you will be introduced to different socio-behavioral theories of change. Please select 2-3 theories, compare and contrast based on each theory’s relevance to a specific public health topic of your choice, pick the best theory and provide your rationale for selection.
For example, you can select healthy eating as a public health topic. Of the theories discussed this week, which 2-3 are most applicable to promoting healthy eating? Of these theories, which would you select as the most appropriate and why?
Topic: Healthy Eating
Theories to compare: Health Belief Model, Transtheoretical Model, Theory of Planned Behavior
Selected theory: Health Belief Model
Rationale/Why: [Evidence from scholarly literature]
Please write about healthy eating.
Forum Reply 1 – 200 words – at least 1 academic source.
Please reply to the essay below.
Theory in breast cancer screening promotion
Using theory as a foundation for program planning is like having a roadmap for studying problems, developing appropriate interventions and evaluating their successes. Theory can also be used to help explain the dynamics of health behaviors and help identify the most suitable audiences and result. Researchers use theory to find answers to the questions of “why”, “what”, and “how” health problems should be addressed. Theory guides the search for reasons why people do or do not engage in certain health behaviors. It helps identify what planers need to know before they develop a program and how to reach target audiences and have the desired outcome.
The topic I have selected to use is breast cancer screening promotion. Cancer has been one of the leading cause of death among women. The Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion in the U.S. has set a goal for healthy people by the year 2020 to reduce the rate of breast cancer death in women, reducing the cancer phases, increasing women’s participation in breast cancer screening. Breast cancer screening is known to be the key to reducing deaths by early detection. If it is detected early, treated in a timely manner, the chance of recovery is increased significantly.
The Health Belief Model is the most widely used models to explain the health behaviors such as screening. According to the HBM, women are more likely to engage in preventive health behaviors such as screening if they believe that action will lead to positive outcomes, and when the barriers are outweighed by the benefits or to acknowledge that lack of action may have serious consequences. Through education, women gain the knowledge and become aware of pros and cons of going through the breast cancer screening process. (PMC, 2018).
The other theory is Cognitive-social theory. Cognitive-social theory is a health protective behavior, articulating a cognitive-social health information processing model. This model comes from health protective behavior which focuses on a person’s expectancies, affects, goals, and values, self-regulatory competencies. They interact with each other by processing relevant information cognitively. This is applied to analyze finding on breast cancer screening so that they can make assessment and interventions to enhance health-protective regimens, tailored to the needs of the individual. (Suzan M., Yuichi S., and Karen H., 1996).
In my opinion, the Health Belief Method is the most appropriate to promote breast cancer screening, although both seem very similar and effective. HBM educates the target, provide information and resources so that even though they may have barriers to screen for breast cancer, the benefits outweigh the barriers or the consequences and that they are afforded to make an informed, sounds decision to get screened.
Suzanne M. ,Yuichi, S., and Karen S., Applying cognitive-social theory to health-protective behavior: Breast cancer screening, Psychological Bulletin, Vol 119(1), Jan 1996 , http://psycnet.apa.org/
Abdulaziz A, and Parinaz A. Health Beliefs as Predictors of Breast Cancer Screening Behavior, 2012, U.S. National Library of Medicine, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4294534/
Forum reply 2 – 200 words – 1 academic source
Please reply to the essay below.
It is almost impossible to have meaningful health interventions without a theory. The simplest way to understand theory is that it is a set of interrelated concepts, definitions an propositions that presents a systematic view of events or situations by identifying relations among variables in order to predict and explain situation (Glanz et.al 2015). Theory helps us to understand what is known about health behavior. Like emergency disaster manager plan for emergency using foresight, Public health professional need to engage in theory to understand the why, what and how. (Glanz et. Al, 2015). Theories can be used to explain behaviors and to identify potential solution to health problems.
The topic I choose to discuss is teenage pregnancy. According to the Centers for Disease Control notes that in 2015 229,715 babies were born to women aged 15-19 years of age CDC, 2017). Though this is considered a drop in teen pregnancy rates, teen pregnanacy is still a problem especially among minorities, but all races are affected. Unfavorable socio-economic factors, including low education and low income of the teens family may contribute to high teen birth rates. Teen pregnancy is a problem because it leads to increased health care cost, increase high school drop-out rates, increased incarceration of teen parents and a continued lower educational achievement of children born of teen mothers.
What factors lead to pregnancy? Lack of knowledge about sex, how contraceptive work, low self stem , rape, barriers to access of contraceptives, dusfunctional families and the media.
Social cognitive theory forms the basis that learning occurs in a social context with a dynamic and reciprocal interaction of that person, environment and behavior (LaMorte, 2016). Social cognitive theory is the better to use at it relates to teenage pregnancy. People learn by observation. However, learning is an internal process that may or may not lead to behavior change. Cognitive theory can influence motivation and well as learning. In this situation a teenager who is placed in a better environment meaning access to reproductive care, stable family life good self-esteem can reap the benefits of that environment.
The health belief model is not the best. Though it embraces various aspects of including the perceived severity, how severe the consequences of becoming a teenage mother and that engaging in activities lead to pregnancy can also increase the likely of them becoming HIV positive as well, it does not take into consideration how the impact of the environment contributes to teenage pregnancy. The benefits of not being a teen mom, having low educational level, low income and other social ills does very little when the environment is still there. People tend to learn and benefit from their environment.
Glanz, K., Rimer, B. K., & Viswanath, K. (2015). Health behavior: Theory, research, and practice. 5th edition. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. ISBN-13: 978-1118628980; ISBN-10: 1118628985
CDC, About Teen Pregnancy 2017. Retrieved on May 9, 2017 from https://www.cdc.gov/teenpregnancy/about/index.htm
Wayne LaMorte, 2106. The Social Cognitive Theory. Retrieved on May 9, 2017 from http://sphweb.bumc.bu.edu/otlt/MPH-Modules/SB/BehavioralChangeTheories/BehavioralChangeTheories5.html