Essentials of Psychology

Robert G. Turner Jr., Ph.D., has more than 20 years of teaching
and education-related experience. He has taught seventh-grade science,
worked as a curriculum developer for the Upward Bound
Program, and taught sociology, social psychology, anthropology,
and honors seminars at the university level. As a professional
writer, he has written nonfiction books, journal and magazine articles,
novels,
and stage plays.
All terms mentioned in this text that are known to be trademarks or service
marks have been appropriately capitalized. Use of a term in this text should not be
regarded as affecting the validity of any trademark or service mark.
INSTRUCTIONS TO STUDENTS 1
LESSON ASSIGNMENTS 7
LESSON 1: PSYCHOLOGY: THE SCIENCE
OF THE MIND 9
LESSON 2: THE MIND AT WORK 43
LESSON 3: MOTIVATION, EMOTION,
DEVELOPMENT, AND PERSONALITY 75
ESSAY ASSIGNMENT 117
LESSON 4: PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS 121
LESSON 5: PSYCHOLOGY FOR TWO OR MORE 143
CASE STUDIES ASSIGNMENT 165
SELF-CHECK ANSWERS 167
APPENDIX 173
iii
C o n t e n t s C o n t e n t s
YOUR COURSE
Welcome to Essentials of Psychology! You?re entering a course
of study designed to help you better understand yourself
and others. For that reason, you can think of this course as
practical. It should be of use to you in living your life and
reaching the goals you set for yourself.
You?ll use two main resources for your course work: this
study guide and your textbook, Psychology and Your Life, 2nd
Edition, by Robert S. Feldman.
OBJECTIVES
When you complete this course, you?ll be able to
n Describe the science and methodologies of psychology
in the context of its historical origins and major
perspectives
n Outline the fundamental structure of the human nervous
system and explain how it relates to the organization of
human sensory perception
n Relate altered states of consciousness to sleep, hypnosis,
meditation, sensory deprivation, and physiological
responses to psychoactive drugs
n Discuss the basic concepts of behavioral psychology,
including classical conditioning, operant conditioning,
and cognitive learning theory
n Describe the nature of human memory in relationship to
thinking processes, intelligence, creativity, and intuition
n Explain the basic concepts of human motivation in
relationship to emotions
n Discuss concepts and models of personality, including
psychodynamic, trait, learning, evolutionary, and
humanistic approaches
n Explain concepts of intelligence and describe approaches
to assessing and measuring intelligence
1
I n s t r u c t i o n s I n s t r u c t i o n s
2 Instructions to Students
n Differentiate a healthy personality from a disordered
personality in the context of mental health and stress
management
n Discuss basic influences of social life and how people
respond to them
COURSE MATERIALS
Your Essentials of Psychology course provides you with the
materials listed below:
1. This study guide, which includes
n A lesson assignments page that lists the schedule of
assigned readings in your textbook
n Self-checks and answers that allow you to measure
your understanding of the course material
n Introductions to the lessons and assignments
2. Your course textbook, Psychology and Your Life, 2nd
Edition, by Robert S. Feldman, which contains your
assigned readings
YOUR TEXTBOOK
Success in your course depends on your knowledge of the
text. For that reason, you should take some time to look
through it from front to back. Give yourself a sense of how
the material is arranged. Here are some of the key features of
your text:
n ?About the Author? is found with the front matter of your
text.
n A brief table of contents is found with the front matter of
your text.
n An extended table of contents is found with the front
matter of your text.
n A preface gives you an overview of chapter features.
Instructions to Students 3
n ?To the Students? is a vital feature of your text. We
strongly recommend that you become familiar with the
author?s SQ3R method and take full advantage of tips for
effective study and test-taking strategies.
n A modular format divides each chapter into related
topic groups.
n ?Learning Outcomes? are listed at the beginning of each
module.
n ?Study Alerts? are highlighted in text margins. They?ll
help you stay focused on key ideas and concepts.
n ?From the Perspective of…? shows you how psychology
impacts different professions.
n ?Becoming an Informed Consumer of Psychology? helps
you think about practical applications of psychology in
your everyday life.
n ?Exploring Diversity? offers you opportunities for critical
analysis of psychological issues across cultures and ethnic
groups.
n ?Full Circle? end-of-chapter features give you a concept
map for modules included in a chapter.
n A ?Key Terms? summary helps you remember what you
need to remember.
n ?Looking Ahead/Looking Back? introduces key concepts
of the next chapter and summarizes the chapter you?ve
just completed to reinforce your learning.
n ?Recap/Evaluate/Rethink? end-of-module activities are
directly related to the module?s learning outcomes.
n ?Case Studies? at the end of each chapter offer excellent
opportunities to apply and analyze chapter content.
n Your text?s illustrations are captioned as figures. The
information contained in these graphics should be seen
as parts of your assigned text material. Assume their
content will reappear in self-checks and lesson exams.
A STUDY PLAN
This study guide is intended to help you achieve the maximum
benefit from the time you spend on this course. It isn?t meant
to replace your textbook. Instead, it serves as an introduction
to material you?ll read in the text and as an aid to assist you
in understanding this material.
This study guide provides your assignments in five lessons.
Each lesson contains two to three chapter assignments, with
Evaluate quizzes and a self-check for each assignment. A
multiple-choice examination follows each lesson. Be sure to
complete all work related to a lesson before moving on to the
next lesson.
For each lesson, do the following:
1. Read the instructions to each assignment in this study
guide. The instructions will provide you with the pages
in the textbook that must be read.
2. Now read the assigned pages in this study guide.
3. Then read the assigned pages in the textbook.
4. When you?ve finished the assignment, complete the selfcheck,
Evaluate quizzes, and discussion board posting.
Note: The Evaluate quizzes and self-checks aren?t graded
and are for your use only?don?t send your answers to
the school.
? Self-Checks: The self-checks are designed to indicate
how well you understand the material, so test
yourself honestly. Make every effort to complete the
questions before turning to the answers at the back
of the study guide. If you find any weak areas,
return to the text and review the relevant material
until you understand it.
? Evaluate Quizzes: With the exception of Assignment
12, each assignment lists Evaluate quizzes for you to
complete. Once you?ve taken the Evaluate quizzes,
you?ll find the answers upside-down on the same
page as the quiz. As with the self-checks, make
every effort to complete the questions before turning
4 Instructions to Students
to the answers. If you find any weak areas, return to
the text and review the relevant material until you
understand it.
? Discussion Board Posting: Each lesson has a
required discussion board that?s located on your student
portal. In order to receive credit for the
discussion board, you must make an initial
response to the question and respond to at least two
other students.
5. Follow this procedure for all assignments until you?ve
completed the lesson.
6. Once you?re confident that you understand all the material
for the lesson, complete the multiple-choice lesson examination.
The examination is open-book and is based on
both textbook and study guide material.
7. Repeat steps 1?6 for the remaining lessons in this
study guide.
If you have any questions, email your instructor.
Now review the lesson assignments on the following pages of
this study guide. Then begin your study of psychology with
Lesson 1, Assignment 1.
Good luck, and enjoy your studies!
Instructions to Students 5
NOTES

 
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