Generating an Idea for Study Two

Lab Presentation

Week 7 Lab

Generating an Idea for Study Two

Overview of The Lab

  • This week during the lab, we are going to focus on your Study Two (a follow-up to Study One that takes the Facebook Consensus study one step further).
  • In this presentation, we will discuss the following:

Part One: The Papers to Come (Papers III, IV, and V)

Part Two: Generating a Study Two Idea

Part Three: Your Task This Week

Part Four: An Eye Toward The Future

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Part One

The Papers to Come: Papers III, IV, and V

The Papers to Come: Papers III, IV, & V

  • This week during the lab, we have a big project: Thinking about study two

Before we get to that idea, let me give you more information about Papers III, IV, and V …

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The Papers to Come: Papers III, IV, & V

  • Paper III: Literature Review (Study Two)

Paper III is your second chance to write a literature review.

Once again, you will use your Facebook Consensus Study as a starting point, writing an APA formatted introduction to your second study that sums up how prior research led to your research hypotheses

Paper III should be easy, as it is simply an extension of Papers I and II! That is, you know the basic process of starting broad and narrowing your paper down to your hypothesis (using APA formatting along the way, of course!)

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The Papers to Come: Papers III, IV, & V

  • Paper III: Literature Review (Study Two)

So how does Paper III differ from Paper I?

Essentially, Paper III combines the title page and literature review from your Paper I with the methods, results, and brief discussion from your Paper II into one longer paper.

Paper III then adds a second “literature” review (after the brief Paper II discussion) based on an extension study (study two). This new study two literature review highlights a second IV of interest to you and your classmates. Paper III focuses on both your new IV and your old IV to see how they might interact

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The Papers to Come: Papers III, IV, & V

  • Paper III: Literature Review (Study Two)

So how does Paper III differ from Paper I?

Consider study one. We used three levels of Facebook feedback. In study two, we will drop one of those levels (we will retain either the Support vs. Oppose conditions only, OR we will retain the Support vs. Mixed only)

We will then add a second IV that has two levels.

I’ll talk more about that in a few slides.

For now, think about Paper III as a continuation of Papers I and II

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The Papers to Come: Papers III, IV, & V

  • Paper IV: Methods and Results (Study Two)

Paper IV is very similar to Paper II. You will write a Methods, Results and brief discussion section, but this time for a factorial research design (a 2 X 2 study)

IMPORTANT: Paper IV is not a simple repeat of Paper II. It has a new methods and results section using a new study design. If you simply copy and paste your Paper II results into this paper, you will NOT receive credit for Paper IV.

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The Papers to Come: Papers III, IV, & V

  • Paper V: The Final Paper (Study Two)

Paper V is your final paper. This will be fairly easy, as it will combine Papers I, II, III and IV into one cohesive paper, with:

Your title page

An abstract (brand new for the final paper)

Study one literature review, methods, results, discussion

Study two literature review, methods, results, discussion

General discussion (brand new for the final paper)

References

SPSS tables (copied from SPSS output)

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The Papers to Come: Papers III, IV, & V

  • Paper V: The Final Paper (Study Two)

The final paper thus incorporates everything you will have learned in the course, focusing once again on the concept of Facebook Consensus. You have a lot of time to work on these papers, so we will go at a nice steady pace.

The only thing to figure out now is where to go with this topic as we create Study Two …

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Test Your Understanding

  • How many conditions will your study two have?

A. One

B. Two

C. Three

D. Four

E. None of the above

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Test Your Understanding

  • How many conditions will your study two have?

A. One

B. Two

C. Three

D. Four

E. None of the above

Your study two uses a 2 X 2 design. That is, we will have two independent variables, each with two levels. This will create four different conditions (all independently / randomly assigned)

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Part Two

Generating a Study Two Idea

Generating a Study Two Idea

  • For the rest of this lab, we are going to discuss the following:

1). Study Two Topic

2). Study Two Guidelines

3). Your Task This Week

4). An Eye Toward the Future

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Generating a Study Two Idea

  • 1). Study Two Topic

For Study Two, I want you to use a factorial study design. That is, rather than just one independent variable with three levels, this new study will have two independent variables, each of which have two levels (a 2 X 2 study with four conditions total).

Thus, for this final study, I want you to do a follow-up study on the Consensus topic using a second independent variable

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Generating a Study Two Idea

  • 1). Study Two Topic

I want to repeat that again, because it is VERY important

For your final study, you will design a factorial study (more than one IV) to expand on your Facebook Consensus study

For this second study, use your first study as a starting point. That is, use S vs. M as one IV and then add a second IV. Or you can look at O vs. M. It’s your lab’s choice (and all members must agree), but I highly recommend S versus M

This week, I want each of YOU to propose some potential new study ideas and come up with potential hypotheses for your follow-up study

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Generating a Study Two Idea

  • 1). Study Two Topic

Keep in mind some constraints that we have for Study Two

You are going to collect data for study two (just as you did in study one), but we are going to collect data online this time using an internet survey program called “Qualtrics”

In a few weeks, you and your instructor will post materials on Qualtrics and you will personally recruit at least 5 people to participate on your behalf. First, though, we need to develop your independent variables and your hypotheses

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Study Two Guidelines

  • 2). Study Two Guidelines

Using Qualtrics, we will randomly assign our participants to one of four different conditions, creating a true experimental design

For Study Two, we are going to develop a 2 X 2 design

This means we have two independent variables, and each IV has two levels (I know I’m being repetitive – it’s important)

Just as a comparison, a 2 X 3 design has two IV’s, one of which has 2 levels and one that has 3 levels

A 2 X 2 X 3 design has three IV’s, one with 2 levels, another with 2 levels, and the last with 3 levels

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Study Two Guidelines

  • 2). Study Two Guidelines

I’ve been thinking about the following set-up on the next few slides myself, but this is just one possibility. Your class can go in a completely different direction if you want (and I encourage your creativity! The info below is just a suggestion)

We can present participants with a multipage internet survey and then have them complete questions at the end.

Each page presents them with either IVs or DVs

You’ve probably done online studies yourself already. Well, imagine this set-up for an online study that you control …

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Study Two Guidelines

  • 2). Study Two Guidelines

A. Page one: Informed consent page

B. Page two: IV page

C. Page three: DV page

D. Page four: Demographics page

E. Page five: Debriefing form

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Study Two Guidelines

  • 2). Study Two Guidelines

A. Page one is easy. We have to create an informed consent page. We will get to this document in the lab next week.

For now, let’s look at page two …

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Study Two Guidelines

  • 2). Study Two Guidelines

B. Page two: First IV page (2 versions)

Recall your Facebook Consensus topic from study one. In study two, we can manipulate the survey in a similar way

Page two is where you have input. In this “priming” page, we expose some participants to one level of our IV and the rest of the participants to the other level of the IV

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Study Two Guidelines

  • 2). Study Two Guidelines

B. Page two: First IV page (2 versions)

Recall your Facebook Consensus topic from study one. In study two, we can manipulate the survey in a similar way

First, we could keep it as is. Some look at Support; some look at Mixed

Note: Why not look at the Oppose condition? Our study is about consensus, so we need one condition that has consensus and one that does not. It is thus important to drop a consensus condition. Here, I think the Support consensus is more useful than Oppose

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Study Two Guidelines

  • 2). Study Two Guidelines

B. Page two: First IV page (2 versions)

Recall your Facebook Consensus topic from study one. In study two, we can manipulate the survey in a similar way

Second, we could manipulate consensus differently

Rather than listing eight supportive comments, we could have ONE person say all of his friends thought cheating was ok (vs. “most” friends said it was ok)

Or we could provide a percentage. That is, we could tell our participants that 100% of prior participants said cheating was ok (vs. 20% said it was ok).

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Study Two Guidelines

  • 2). Study Two Guidelines

B. Page two: First IV page (2 versions)

Recall your Facebook Consensus topic from study one. In study two, we can manipulate the survey in a similar way

My advice, though, is to keep the original comments. That way you have a better connection between Study One and Study Two, allowing you to draw much better comparisons between the two studies in your final paper

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Study Two Guidelines

  • 2). Study Two Guidelines

B. Page two: First IV page (2 versions)

Now let’s talk about your second IV. This second variable is more flexible, and can be either manipulated or measured

First, recall that measured IVs get at characteristics the participants bring with them to the laboratory.

This can involve demographics (e.g. do men respond differently than women?) or attitudes (e.g. do people high in need for consistency respond differently than those low in need for consistency?).

Or what if we determined if participants also cheated

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Study Two Guidelines

  • 2). Study Two Guidelines

B. Page two: First IV page (2 versions)

Now let’s talk about your second IV. This second variable is more flexible, and can be either manipulated or measured

First, recall that measured IVs get at characteristics the participants bring with them to the laboratory.

Remember that with measured variables, you cannot draw causal conclusions (we cannot assign someone to an attitude or a demographic characteristic).

For our second study, a measured variables might be based on participant locus of control …

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Study Two Guidelines

  • 2). Study Two Guidelines

B. Page two: First IV page (2 versions)

Now let’s talk about your second IV. This second variable is more flexible, and can be either manipulated or measured

First, recall that measured IVs get at characteristics the participants bring with them to the laboratory.

An internal locus of control focuses on a person believing they are responsible for an outcome; an external locus of control focuses on outside factors being responsible. Would internal LOC p’s feel like cheating was okay versus not okay?

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Study Two Guidelines

  • 2). Study Two Guidelines

B. Page two: First IV page (2 versions)

Now let’s talk about your second IV. This second variable is more flexible, and can be either manipulated or measured

Second, I usually prefer manipulated IVs. Here, we alter something else (in addition to our S and M groups)

For example, we could see if forewarning people about the effects of consensus influences their ratings of cheating. That is …

Idea #1

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Study Two Guidelines

  • 2). Study Two Guidelines

B. Page two: First IV page (2 versions)

Now let’s talk about your second IV. This second variable is more flexible, and can be either manipulated or measured

Second, I usually prefer manipulated IVs. Here, we alter something else (in addition to our S and M groups)

… we could tell some participants about the idea of consensus before they see the Facebook posts to see if the warning impacts their DV ratings. Others would not get this warning. Thus …

Idea #1

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Study Two Guidelines

  • 2). Study Two Guidelines

B. Page two: First IV page (2 versions)

Now let’s talk about your second IV. This second variable is more flexible, and can be either manipulated or measured

Second, I usually prefer manipulated IVs. Here, we alter something else (in addition to our S and M groups)

… some participants would get support + a warning, some get mixed + a warning, some get support + no warning, and the rest mixed + no warning.

Four conditions total in this 2 X 2 design!

Idea #1

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Study Two Guidelines

  • 2). Study Two Guidelines

B. Page two: First IV page (2 versions)

Now let’s talk about your second IV. This second variable is more flexible, and can be either manipulated or measured

Second, I usually prefer manipulated IVs. Here, we alter something else (in addition to our S and M groups)

Or, we could alter the gender of the Facebook user. What if we have Abigail (female) vs. Albert (male)? Would the user’s gender interact with the support versus mixed comments? (support + male, support + female, mixed + male, mixed + female)

Idea #2

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Study Two Guidelines

  • 2). Study Two Guidelines

B. Page two: First IV page (2 versions)

Now let’s talk about your second IV. This second variable is more flexible, and can be either manipulated or measured

Second, I usually prefer manipulated IVs. Here, we alter something else (in addition to our S and M groups)

Or, what if Abigail was young for some participants (new college student, early twenties) versus an older student (forties) for others?

Or, what if Abigail is Caucasian in some conditions but African American or Hispanic in others?

Idea #3

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Study Two Guidelines

  • 2). Study Two Guidelines

B. Page two: First IV page (2 versions)

Now let’s talk about your second IV. This second variable is more flexible, and can be either manipulated or measured

Second, I usually prefer manipulated IVs. Here, we alter something else (in addition to our S and M groups)

Or what if Abigail’s posts received a lot of “likes” for the support (vs. mixed) posts versus very few “likes”

Or what if we used different emojies (like response, love response, angry face response, laughing face response, angry face response, etc.)

Idea #4

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Study Two Guidelines

  • 2). Study Two Guidelines

B. Page two: First IV page (2 versions)

Now let’s talk about your second IV. This second variable is more flexible, and can be either manipulated or measured

Second, I usually prefer manipulated IVs. Here, we alter something else (in addition to our S and M groups)

Or we could alter the type or number of “comments”. Since this is an online study, we could do more than eight comments back. So what if one condition has 20 supportive comments; one has 8 supportive; one has 20 mixed comments; one has 8 mixed?

Idea #5

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Study Two Guidelines

  • 2). Study Two Guidelines

B. Page two: First IV page (2 versions)

Now let’s talk about your second IV. This second variable is more flexible, and can be either manipulated or measured

Second, I usually prefer manipulated IVs. Here, we alter something else (in addition to our S and M groups)

What if we look at different “moral” situations? We can keep the test-cheating Abigail post for some participants (with both support and mixed comments for conditions 1 and 2), but add in a new morality situation for conditions 3 and 4 …

Idea #6

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Study Two Guidelines

  • 2). Study Two Guidelines

B. Page two: First IV page (2 versions)

Now let’s talk about your second IV. This second variable is more flexible, and can be either manipulated or measured

Second, I usually prefer manipulated IVs. Here, we alter something else (in addition to our S and M groups)

That is, in conditions 3 and 4, Abigail admits that she saw a woman drop a gift card outside a store for $100. The woman drove off before Abigail could say anything, so rather than alerting the store, she kept the gift card and wants to know if it was bad …

Idea #6

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Study Two Guidelines

  • 2). Study Two Guidelines

B. Page two: First IV page (2 versions)

Now let’s talk about your second IV. This second variable is more flexible, and can be either manipulated or measured

Second, I usually prefer manipulated IVs. Here, we alter something else (in addition to our S and M groups)

For this Idea #6, would participants see the behavior as more immoral if it involved a test-cheating situation or if it involved not telling anyone about found money?

Idea #6

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Study Two Guidelines

  • 2). Study Two Guidelines

B. Page two: First IV page (2 versions)

Now let’s talk about your second IV. This second variable is more flexible, and can be either manipulated or measured

Second, I usually prefer manipulated IVs. Here, we alter something else (in addition to our S and M groups)

My final idea is to see if participants alter their views depending on whether they are asked to think about Abigail’s cheating emotionally (versus rationally).

We could even have participants write about an emotional (versus rational) experience to prime them

Idea #7

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Study Two Guidelines

  • 2). Study Two Guidelines

B. Page two: First IV page (2 versions)

Now let’s talk about your second IV. This second variable is more flexible, and can be either manipulated or measured

Second, I usually prefer manipulated IVs. Here, we alter something else (in addition to our S and M groups)

I gave you a bunch of possible studies, but PLEASE feel free to come up with your own idea, as there are THOUSANDS of other possibilities. Use your lit review experience as a jumping off point. Just remember that our class will choose ONE of them.

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Test Your Understanding

  • Why is it important to reuse at least some material (either IV or DV related) from study one when we engage in study two?

A. We want to see if we can replicate some study one results

B. We want to extend study one to see how a new independent variable interacts with the original independent variable

C. We want to be able to draw good comparisons between study one and study two in our eventual final paper

D. All of the above

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Test Your Understanding

  • Why is it important to reuse at least some material (either IV or DV related) from study one when we engage in study two?

A. We want to see if we can replicate some study one results

B. We want to extend study one to see how a new independent variable interacts with the original independent variable

C. We want to be able to draw good comparisons between study one and study two in our eventual final paper

D. All of the above

Easy one here – all of these elements are important

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Study Two Guidelines

  • 2). Study Two Guidelines

B. Page two: First IV page (2 versions)

Please be creative with your IVs. Don’t feel restricted to the design we used for study one (though feel free to replicate it if you really want!). If you do go in a different direction, note that your DVs are going to differ as well. At minimum, we need two independent variables, so keep that in mind!

C. Okay, let’s move on and look at page three and some of those new DVs…

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Study Two Guidelines

  • 2). Study Two Guidelines

C. Page three: DVs page

The third page of your new study should ask about your dependent variables. Make sure to measure responses that are pertinent to your study design

You can use as many of the variables from study one as you want or you can have different variables. Just recall that you want to have connections between study one and study two, so the more they overlap the better you can compare and contrast them in Paper V later this semester (e.g. “Study two findings replicated study one”)

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Study Two Guidelines

  • 2). Study Two Guidelines

D. Page four: Demographics page

Page four will be easy. You can reuse the demographics set-up from Study One (though add potential new factors if you find them important. For example, if you do a religious based second independent variable, you might want to ask for the participant’s religion)

Demographics can come at either the start of the study or the end: put them where you think they work best

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Study Two Guidelines

  • 2). Study Two Guidelines

E. Page five: Debriefing Statement

Page five is also easy. You’ll need to tell your participants what you did, why you did it, and what you predict.

Of course, you’ll need to have your study idea and its hypothesis in mind, which brings us to your next task for this lab session …

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Part Three

Your Task This Week

Your Task This Week

  • 3). Your task this week

Note: For a 2 X 2 study, we will have a more complex set of hypotheses. For each dependent variable we will actually have three types of hypotheses. This includes two main effects and one interaction for each dependent variable

A main effect looks at the impact of one IV regardless of the presence of the other IV

An interaction looks at the simultaneous impact of both IVs working in concert on the DV

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Your Task This Week

  • 3). Your task this week

Note: For a 2 X 2 study, we will have a more complex set of hypotheses. For each dependent variable we will actually have three types of hypotheses. This includes two main effects and one interaction for each dependent variable

For now, imagine we create a 2 X 2 study where one IV is consensus (support vs mixed) and a second is manipulated warning (warn about consensus vs do not warn).

This gives us four study conditions: Support + Warning, Support + No Warning, Oppose + Warning, Oppose + No Warning

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Your Task This Week

  • 3). Your task this week

Note: For a 2 X 2 study, we will have a more complex set of hypotheses. For each dependent variable we will actually have three types of hypotheses. This includes two main effects and one interaction for each dependent variable

So, imagine we have consensus as IV #1 (support v. mixed) and warning as IV #2 (warned v. not warned)

Let’s see look at main effect and interaction hypotheses …

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Your Task This Week

  • 3). Your task this week

2 X 2 study: Main Effects

Consider a 2 (Condition: Support vs. Mixed) X 2 (Warning: Warned vs. Not Warned) study

Condition and Warning are our two IVs (2 X 2)

Consider “Abigail’s behavior was wrong” as our DV

Main effect #1: Looking only at condition, I expect a main effect for condition, with support participants feeling the cheating was less wrong than mixed participants

Note: this ONLY looks at condition, NOT self-esteem

#1

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Your Task This Week

  • 3). Your task this week

2 X 2 study: Main Effects

Consider a 2 (Condition: Support vs. Mixed) X 2 (Warning: Warned vs. Not Warned) study

Condition and Warning are our two IVs (2 X 2)

Consider “Abigail’s behavior was wrong” as our DV

Main effect #2: Looking only at warning, I don’t expect there to be a significant impact of warning all on its own (it needs the other IV to impact participants).

Still, this looks ONLY at warning, NOT condition

#2

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Your Task This Week

  • 3). Your task this week

2 X 2 study: Interactions

Consider a 2 (Condition: Support vs. Mixed) X 2 (Warning: Warned vs. Not Warned) study

Condition and Warning are our two IVs (2 X 2)

Consider “Abigail’s behavior was wrong” as our DV

Interaction: Here, participants should rate the behavior as less wrong in the support + no warning condition and most wrong in the mixed + warning condition. The other two conditions (support + warning and mixed + no warning) will fall in between these extremes

Int

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Your Task This Week

  • 3). Your task this week

2 X 2 study: Main effects and Interactions

So keep in mind that each DV we look at may have three hypotheses (2 main effects and 1 interaction).

We could go back and look at other DVs as well.

“Abigail’s behavior was unacceptable”

“I would advise Abigail to keep silent”

“Abigail seems warm” etc.

Okay, time for your assignment. Come up with a 2 X 2 study design idea and share it with your classmates!

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Your Task This Week

  • 3). Your task this week

As soon as your lab instructor sees all of your wonderful ideas, he or she will pick out the ones that seem most interesting and let the class choose which one to pursue.

Sorry, we will only do one idea for the whole class this semester. Well … actually, we will do one study across all online sections, so this will go beyond just your specific online class as well.

Sorry again! You can concentrate on more individualized studies in your future psychological career!

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Test Your Understanding

  • How many main effects and interactions will we look at in a 2 X 2 study design?

A. One main effect and one interaction

B. One main effect and two interactions

C. Two main effects and one interaction

D. Two main effects and two interactions

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Test Your Understanding

  • How many main effects and interactions will we look at in a 2 X 2 study design?

A. One main effect and one interaction

B. One main effect and two interactions

C. Two main effects and one interaction

D. Two main effects and two interactions

Consider independent variables A and B. We will have one main effect for variable A, one main effect for variable B, and one interaction of variables A and B

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Part Two

An Eye to the Future

An Eye To The Future

  • Study Two Materials

Don’t worry about your materials for your new study this week, but start thinking about some of the materials you will need for your study

Next week, once we have established your 2 X 2 design for the study, you will start working on your materials (informed consent, IV 1, IV 2, DVs, demographics, debriefing form)

We have a few weeks to work on this, as the materials won’t be due for some time, but start thinking ahead while you build your research hypothesis!

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An Eye To The Future

  • Other assignments

Keep in mind that your Paper II: Study One Methods, Results, and Discussion will be due soon. Instructions and guidelines for that paper (as well as an example paper) are available on Canvas

 
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