Homeless Population Disaster in the Community

Homeless Population Disaster in the Community

Homeless Population

Disaster in the Community

Read chapter 22 and 28 of the class textbooks and review the attached PowerPoint presentations.  Once done, answer the following questions.

  1. Identify and discuss the major health problems among the various homeless aggregates in your community.
  2. Mention and discuss three factors that contribute to homelessness and how it affects your community
  3. Mention and discuss the stages of disaster management.
  4. Discuss the impact of disasters on a community.

Please click and watch the video below. Questions about these two videos may be added to the next test.  

As stated in the syllabus, present your assignment in an APA format word document, Arial 12 font attached to the forum in the discussion tab of the blackboard titled “Week 7 discussion questions,” and the SafeAssign exercise in the assignment tab of the blackboard which is a mandatory requirement.  A minimum of 2 evidence-based references (besides the class textbook) no older than five years.    You must post two replies to any of your peers sustained with the proper references no older than five years as well and make sure the references are quoted according to the APA guidelines. In your assignment. You can’t post the replies on the same day, I must see different dates in the replies.   A minimum of 800 words is required (excluding the first and reference page).  Please make sure to follow the instructions as given and use either spell-check or Grammarly before you post your assignment.

Chapter 28

Natural and Man-Made Disasters

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

Disaster Definitions

A disaster is any event that causes a level of destruction, death, or injury that affects the abilities of the community to respond to the incident using available resources.

Mass casualty involves 100+ individuals

Multiple casualty involves 2 to 99 individuals

Casualties can be classified as a direct victim, indirect victim, displaced person, or refugee

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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Types of Disasters

Natural disasters

Man-made disasters

Combination disasters

NA-TECH (natural/technological) disaster: a natural disaster that creates or results in a widespread technological problem

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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Types of Disasters (Cont.) (from Textbook, Box 28-1)

Natural Disasters

Avalanches

Blizzards

Communicable disease epidemics

Droughts, wildfires

Earthquakes, tsunamis

Hailstorms

Heat waves

Hurricanes

Tornados, cyclones

Volcanic eruptions

Man-Made Disasters

Terrorism

Civil unrest (riots)

Explosions, bombings

Fires

Structural collapse (bridges)

Airplane crashes

Toxic or hazardous spills

Mass transit accidents

Pollution

Wars

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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Acts of Terrorism

Terrorism is

“the unlawful use of force and or violence against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives.” (FBI, 2013)

“is premeditated, politically motivated violence perpetrated against noncombatant targets by sub-national groups or clandestine agents.” (CIA, 2013)

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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Weapons of Mass Destruction

Any weapon that is designed or intended to cause death or serious bodily injury through release, dissemination, or impact of toxic or poisonous chemicals, or their precursors

Any weapon involving a disease organism (biological agents)

Any weapon that is designed to release radiation or radioactivity at a level dangerous to human life (chemical agents)

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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Characteristics of Disasters

Frequency

Predictability

Preventability/mitigation

Imminence

Scope and number of casualties

Intensity

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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Prevention in Disasters

Primary prevention

Aimed at preventing the occurrence of a disaster or limiting the consequences when the event itself cannot be prevented (mitigation)

Nondisaster stage: period before a disaster occurs

Predisaster stage: actions taken when a disaster is pending

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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Prevention in Disasters (Cont.)

Nondisaster activities include:

Assessing communities to determine potential disaster hazards

Developing disaster plans at local, state, and federal levels

Conducting drills to test the plan

Training volunteers and health care providers

Providing educational programs of all kinds

Developing risk maps and resource maps

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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Prevention in Disasters (Cont.)

Predisaster activities include:

Notification of the appropriate officials

Warning the population

Advising what response to take

voluntary or mandatory evacuation

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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Prevention in Disasters (Cont.)

Secondary prevention

Implemented once the disaster occurs

Aimed at preventing further injury or destruction

“Safety before search and rescue.”

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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Prevention in Disasters (Cont.)

Tertiary prevention

Focuses on recovery and restoring the community to previous levels of functioning and its residents to their maximum functioning

Aimed at preventing a recurrence or minimizing the effects of future disasters through debriefing meetings to identify problems with the plan and making revisions

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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Nurses Need to …

… be involved in all stages of prevention and related activities

… educate others about disasters and how to prepare for and respond to them

… keep up to date on latest recommendations and advances in life-saving measures

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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Questions Nurses Should Ask

What kind of disasters threaten the communities where I live?

What injuries should I expect from different disaster scenarios?

What are the evacuation routes?

Where are shelters located?

What warning systems are used so I can respond effectively, personally, and professionally during different types of disasters?

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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Disaster Management

A collaborative interdisciplinary team effort is needed between a network of agencies and individuals.

Develop a disaster plan.

Communities can respond more quickly, more effectively, and with less confusion.

Ensures that resources are available.

Delineates roles and responsibilities of all personnel and agencies, both official and unofficial.

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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Governmental Responsibilities

Local government (first responders)

Responsible for the safety and welfare of its citizens.

State government (Office of Emergency Management)

Involved when a disaster overwhelms the local community’s resources.

Federal government (Department of Homeland Security and CDC)

A single department focusing on protecting the American people and their homeland

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS)

DHS has three primary missions:

Lead the unified national effort to secure America

Prevent and deter terrorist attacks

Protect against and respond to threats and hazards to the nation

DHS goal (2011):

Sets the “vision for nationwide preparedness”

Identifies the core capabilities and targets necessary to achieve preparedness across five mission areas: Prevention, Protection, Mitigation, Response, and Recovery.

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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NIMS

NIMS (National Incident Management System) provides a systematic, proactive approach for all levels of governmental and nongovernmental agencies to work seamlessly to prevent, protect against, respond to, recover from, and prevent the effects of disasters.

– Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) (2012)

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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FEMA

Mission is to support citizens and first responders to ensure that, as a nation, everyone works together to build, sustain, and improve the capacity to prepare for, protect against, respond to, recover from, and mitigate all hazards.

Established National Terrorism Advisory System

Threat alert: elevated or imminent threat

FEMA published in-depth guide for citizen preparedness: Are You Ready?

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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Partnerships in Disasters

Department of Homeland Security (DHS)

Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)

Department of Health and Human Services/ Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Public Health System (PHS)

American Red Cross (ARC)

Other local, state, and federal agencies

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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Disaster Management Stages

Prevention stage

Preparedness and planning stage

Response stage

Recovery stage

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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Prevention Stage

Identify potential disaster risks.

Create risk maps

Educate citizens regarding what actions to take to prepare for disasters.

Individual, family, and community level

Develop a plan for meeting the potential disasters identified.

Create resource maps

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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Community Risk Map (from Textbook, Figure 28-1)

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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Community Resource Map (from Textbook, Figure 28-2)

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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Preparedness/Planning Stage: Individual and Family Preparedness

Training in first aid

Assembling a disaster emergency kit

Establishing a predetermined meeting place away from home

Making a family communication plan

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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Preparedness/Planning Stage: Community Disaster Planning

Plans must include:

Authority

Communication

Logistical coordination of:

Supplies and equipment

Human resources

Evacuation and rescue

Plans must be dynamic and change as needed.

Plans must be tested in different disaster scenario drills.

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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Disaster Planning Principles (from Textbook, Box 28-8)

Measures usually taken are not sufficient for major disasters.

Plans should be adjusted to people’s needs.

Planning does not stop with development of a written plan.

Lack of information causes inappropriate responses by community members.

People should be able to respond with or without direction.

Plans should coordinate efforts of the entire community, so large segments of the citizenry should be involved in the planning.

Plans should be linked to surrounding areas.

Plans should be general enough to cover all potential disaster events.

As much as possible, plans should be based on everyday work methods and procedures.

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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Disaster Planning Principles (Cont.) (from Textbook, Box 28-8, Cont.)

Plans should specify a person’s responsibility for implementing segments by position or title rather than by name.

Plans should develop a record-keeping system before a disaster occurs, regarding:

Supplies and equipment

Records of all present at any given time (to account for everyone and to identify the missing)

Identification of victims and deceased, conditions and treatment documented, and to which facility victims are sent

Backup plans need to be in place for the following:

Disruption of telephone and cell phone lines

Disruption of computer data (should be downloaded weekly and stored off site)

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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Response Stage

Response stage begins immediately after the disaster incident occurs.

May include:

Shelter in place

Evacuation

Search and rescue

Staging area

Disaster triage

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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Areas of Operation in Disaster Response

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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Figure 28-3

Disaster Triage

START triage system

“Simple Triage And Rapid Treatment”

Used in multicasualty or mass casualty incident

Triage of injured person should occur in less than 1 minute based on:

Respirations

Perfusion

Mental status

Uses people with minor injuries to assist

Person is tagged with a colored triage tag

Victims moved to the treatment area

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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START Color-Coded Triage Tag

Green = walking wounded

Yellow = systemic but not yet life-threatening complications

Red = life-threatening conditions that can be stabilized and have a high probability of survival

Black = deceased or injuries so extensive that nothing can be done to save them

Hazmat tag = contaminated

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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Figure 28-4

Source: http://www.mettag.com. Reprinted with permission.

Psychological Triage

Four keys to gauging mental health impact:

Extreme and widespread property damage

Serious and ongoing financial problems

High prevalence of trauma in the form of injuries, threat to life, and loss of life

When human intent caused the disaster

In addition, panic during the disaster, horror, separation from family, and relocation or displacement may play a part

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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Public Health Activities

While search and rescue is going on …

Surveil for threats (e.g., contaminated water, vectors, and air quality).

Disseminate data on what has been found.

Relate health information to officials, the media, and the public as appropriate.

Gather epidemiological information.

Allocate resources and work to prevent further adverse health problems.

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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Responses to Disasters

Community

Heroic phase

Honeymoon phase

Disillusionment phase

Reconstruction phase

Individual

Cognitive

Emotional

Physical

Behavioral

PTSD

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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Recovery Stage

Begins when the danger from the disaster has passed.

All local, state, and federal agencies are present in the area.

Help victims rebuild their lives

Restore public services

Cleanup of damage and repair begins

Evaluation and revision of the disaster plans

Understand the financial impact

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