I had a difficulty finding non-reactive studies for the particular research that I have been focusing on. The first one that I found seems to be both reactive and non-reactive. People were involved in the first portion of the study, but were not aware of the second phase. The first academic journal that I found is titled “Does Counting Emotion Words on Online Social Networks Provide a Window into People’s Subjective Experience of Emotion? A Case Study on Facebook. Content analysis was used to determine if the words that people post are linked to how they really feel. Reactive measures were used first to question participants on how they felt during the week. Word counting algorithms were used to determine if people really feel the way that they portray on social media. Four samples were used for the study. Facebook data and experience surveys were used to determine if emotion words can be linked to somebody’s true emotional status. The multi-level data analysis included four phases. It was found that there is not a link between a person’s emotions and the words that they post on social media. (Kross, et al., 2019)
The second article that I found is titled “Objectifying Fitness: A Content and Thematic Analysis of #Fitspiration Images on Social Media. Non -reactive measures were used to determine if the large volume of #fitspiration posts on Instagram are linked to body dissatisfaction. Hashtags such as #fitspiration were analyzed in terms of body types and how the posts were presented. The purpose is to find the link between the images and the theory of objectification. It theorizes the dangers of women being bombarded by what is considered an ideal body type. The first question that was asked was “What are the most common types of imagery featured in #fitspiration posts on Instagram?” (Deighton, Bell, 2018). The posts were coded into categories such as body type, body proportion, pose and clothing type. It was found that the majority of the posts depict thin people with low body fat. In a second study that used content analysis the themes of #fitspiration was looked at. In both studies objectification theory was seen. In both studies, thinness is linked to beauty in unrealistic ways that can be detrimental to peoples body image. For me, finding non-reactive studies were difficult. Many of the articles that I found included surveys as the primary measure, or both reactive and non-reactive measures. This makes me think that it could be difficult to gain physical evidence regarding social media usage without violating privacy or other ethical concerns.
Deighton-Smith, N., & Bell, B. T. (2018). Objectifying fitness: A content and thematic analysis of #fitspiration images on social media. Psychology of Popular Media Culture, 7(4), 467–483. https://doi.org/10.1037/ppm0000143
Kross, E., Verduyn, P., Boyer, M., Drake, B., Gainsburg, I., Vickers, B., Ybarra, O., & Jonides, J. (2019). Does counting emotion words on online social networks provide a window into people’s subjective experience of emotion? A case study on Facebook. Emotion, 19(1), 97–107. https://doi.org/10.1037/emo0000416.supp (Supplemental)
McKibben, W. B., Umstead, L. K. & Borders, L. D. (2017). Identifying dynamics of counseling Leadership: A content analysis study. Journal of Counseling & Development, 95(2), 192–202. https://doi.org/10.1002/jcad.12131
Burbank, M., Odom, S. F., & Sandlin, M.R. (2015). A content analysis of undergraduate students’ perceived reasons for changes in personal leadership behaviors. Journal of Leadership Education, 14(2), 182–197. https://doi.org/10.12806/V14/I2/R12
Neuman, W. L. (2017). Understanding research. New York, NY: Pearson.
The first article chosen discusses the relationship between leadership and counseling. The study wanted to seek “how counseling leadership works as a social dynamic by identifying the content and processes involved” (McKibben et al., 2017). Many components across leaderships theories emerged such as positive reinforcement and mentorship.
The second article reviewed seeks to help change leadership for undergraduates after they have taken a course in leadership practices. “Individuals learn and develop leadership through a variety of mediums such as formal coursework, youth and collegiate programs, educational experiences, and on-the-job experiences” (Brungardt, 1997; Cress, Astin, Zimmerman-Oster, & Burkhardt, 2001; Dugan, 2006). “Understanding the link between leadership development and leadership education is essential as leadership educators attempt to expand the capacities of individual students in the classroom through curricular activities and outside the classroom through co-curricular assignments”
“On the basis of a systematic coding procedure, we identified 24 themes that described leadership dynamics in the counseling profession (Research Question 1), which were then grouped by commonalities into three broad categories (Research Question 2)” (McKibben et al., 2017). The researchers used content analysis by using “an inductive coding approach to allow themes to emerge without the constraints of an a prior theory” (Krippendorff, 2013). Full length articles were used from counseling journals. An inductive approach was used in order for them to randomly select two articles as a pretest.
The article wanted readers to know that a Student-Leadership Practices Inventory was conducted. This was a pre/post assessment. Students must be enrolled in a leadership course, needed to complete the student inventory, and respond to reflection prompts. The class used the Kolb’s Experimental Learning Model to reflect on their changes in leadership qualities. This study used content analysis which is a “nonreactive technique that lets you examine both hidden and visible content in communication messages” (Neuman, p. 163, 2017). Specifically, the researchers used the instructors for the course. In order to prevent potential bias in results, “the analysis of the student reflections and consent to participate in the study was not conducted until the conclusion of the course. As another way to limit bias, names were removed and reflections were coded by someone other than the instructor before analysis was conducted” (Burbank, M., Odom, S. F., & Sandlin, M.R. (2015).
Made you think:
The articles that I chose made me reflect in a few ways with regards to nonreactive measures. First, finding articles that relate to your topic is important. Narrowing down what it is specifically want you want to research is key to maintain direction. To help guide in a content analysis there is an eight step process. To name two portions in our steps would be identify text to analyze and decide on units of analysis. A coding system using leadership theory would be sufficient for my research proposal. “You must tailor the coding system to the specific type of text or communication medium you are examining, such as television dramas, novels, music videos, photos in magazine advertisements, and so forth” (Neuman, p. 164, 2017). Then I must break down to the unit of analysis, such phrases for leaderships would be “coaching,” leaderships” and “mentor”.