President Kennedy enacted a major change to our health care state by deinstitutionalizing those with mental illness.

President Kennedy enacted a major change to our health care state by deinstitutionalizing those with mental illness.

President Kennedy enacted a major change to our health care state by deinstitutionalizing those with mental illness.  However, those with mental health care issues must navigate a complex system of care.  There are a few effective models of integrated care (such as the ACT). 

“Design” a system, intervention, or preventative endeavor that meets the spirit of a community psychology system or program and better meets the needs of our citizens with mental health problems. Submit a paper on the designed health care system (or intervention or prevention endeavor).  In the paper, address which principles of Community Psychology (refer back to Ch. 1) are incorporated into this program. More specifically, please address the following points in your paper:

  1. Explain the current mental health system (2 points)
  2. Design and describe a better system that will address the needs of those with mental health care concerns (make sure that I can understand what you are proposing by being specific) (4 points)
  3. Describe which Principle(s) of Community Psychology (CP; from Ch. 1) are represented in your program or system, and specifically comment on how and why your program meets the spirit of a CP program (4 points)

2

Fifth Edition

COMMUNITY PSYCHOLOGY

John Moritsugu Pacific Lutheran University

Elizabeth Vera Loyola University Chicago

Frank Y. Wong Emory University

Karen Grover Duffy State University of New York, Geneseo

3

First published 2014, 2010, 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc.

Published 2016 by Routledge 2 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 4RN 711 Third Avenue, New York, NY, 10017, USA

Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business

Copyright © 2014, 2010, 2003 Taylor & Francis. All rights reserved

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilised in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers.

Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation without intent to infringe.

Credits and acknowledgments borrowed from other sources and reproduced, with permission, in this textbook appear on appropriate page within text.

ISBN: 9780205255627 (pbk)

Cover Designer: Karen Noferi

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Duffy, Karen Grover. Community psychology.—Fifth edition / John Moritsugu, Pacific Lutheran University, Elizabeth Vera, Loyola

University Chicago, Frank Y. Wong, Emory University, Karen Grover Duffy, State University of New York, Geneseo. pages cm

Revision of: Community psychology / John Moritsugu, Frank Y. Wong, Karen Grover Duffy.—4th ed.—Boston : Allyn & Bacon, ©2010. ISBN-13: 978-0-205-25562-7 ISBN-10: 0-205-25562-0

1. Community psychology. I. Moritsugu, John. II. Vera, Elizabeth, 1967– III. Wong, Frank Y., 1958– IV. Title. RA790.55.D84 2013

362.2—dc23

2013008404

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Part I

Chapter 1

Chapter 2

CONTENTS Introductory Concepts

INTRODUCTION: HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

Historical Background

Social Movements

Swampscott

What Is Community Psychology?

Fundamental Principles

A Respect for Diversity

The Importance of Context and Environment

Empowerment

The Ecological Perspective/Multiple Levels of Intervention

▶ CASE IN POINT 1.1 Clinical Psychology, Community Psychology: What’s the Difference?

Other Central Concepts

Prevention Rather than Therapy

▶ CASE IN POINT 1.2 Does Primary Prevention Work?

Social Justice

Emphasis on Strengths and Competencies

Social Change and Action Research

Interdisciplinary Perspectives

▶ CASE IN POINT 1.3 Social Psychology, Community Psychology, and Homelessness

▶ CASE IN POINT 1.4 The Importance of Place

A Psychological Sense of Community

Training in Community Psychology

Plan of the Text

Summary

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH METHODS

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Chapter 3

The Essence of Scientific Research

Why Do Scientific Research?

What Is Scientific Research?

The Fidelity of Scientific Research

▶ CASE IN POINT 2.1 A Theory of Substance Abuse and HIV/STDs that Incorporates the Principles of Community Psychology

Traditional Scientific Research Methods

Population and Sampling

Correlational Research ■ BOX 2.1 Research across Time

Experimental Research

Quasi-experimental Research

Alternative Research Methods Used in Community Psychology

Ethnography

▶ CASE IN POINT 2.2 Case Study of a Consumer-Run Agency

Geographic Information Systems

Epidemiology

Needs Assessment and Program Evaluation

▶ CASE IN POINT 2.3 Needs Assessment of a Hmong Community

Participatory Action Research

Cautions and Considerations Regarding Community Research

The Politics of Science and the Science of Politics

Ethics: Cultural Relativism or Universal Human Rights?

The Continuum of Research: The Value of Multiple Measures

▶ CASE IN POINT 2.4 HIV Intervention Testing and the Use of Placebos

The Importance of Cultural Sensitivity

Community Researchers as Consultants

Summary

STRESS AND RESILIENCE

The Stress Model and the Definition of Community Psychology

Stress

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Part II

Chapter 4

Stressor Events

Stress as a Process

Stress Reaction

▶ CASE IN POINT 3.1 Contemporary Racism

Coping

Social Support

▶ CASE IN POINT 3.2 Mexican American College Student Acculturation Stress, Social Support, and Coping

Resilience

At-Risk to Resilient

The Kauai Longitudinal Studies

A Useful Model

The Fourth Wave

Summary

Social Change and Intervention

THE IMPORTANCE OF SOCIAL CHANGE

Reasons for Social Change

Diverse Populations

Social Justice: A Moral Imperative for Social Change

The Perception of Declining or Scarce Resources

▶ CASE IN POINT 4.1 Funding Dilemmas for Nonprofit Organizations

Accountability

Knowledge-Based and Technological Change

Community Conflict

Dissatisfaction with Traditional Services

Desire for Diversity of Solutions

▶ CASE IN POINT 4.2 Community Conflict: Adversity Turns to Opportunity

Types of Social Change

Spontaneous or Unplanned Social Change

Planned Social Change

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Chapter 5

▶ CASE IN POINT 4.3 Working with an Indigenous People Experiencing Change

Issues Related to Planned Change

Difficulties Bringing About Change

Summary

COMMUNITY INTERVENTION STRATEGIES

Creating Planned Change

Citizen Participation

▶ CASE IN POINT 5.1 The Community Development Society

Community Participation and Prevention

Who Participates?

Advantages and Disadvantages of Citizen Participation

Networking/Collaboration

▶ CASE IN POINT 5.2 Online Networks for Ethnic Minority Issues

Issues Related to Networks

Advantages and Disadvantages of Networks

Consultation

Issues Related to Consultants

Advantages and Disadvantages of Consultants

Community Education and Information Dissemination

Information Dissemination

Community Education

Issues Related to Information Dissemination

Issues Related to Community Education

▶ CASE IN POINT 5.3 The Choices Program

Public Policy

▶ CASE IN POINT 5.4 Rape Crisis Centers: A National Examination

Issues Related to the Use of Public Policy

Advantages and Disadvantages of Public Policy Changes

A Skill Set for Practice

Summary

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Part III

Chapter 6

Chapter 7

Community Psychology Applied to Various Settings

THE MENTAL HEALTH SYSTEM

Epidemiological Estimates of Mental Illness

Models of Mental Health and Mental Disorder

The Medical Model

The Psychoanalytic Model

The Behavioral Model: The Social-Learning Approach

The Humanistic Model

▶ CASE IN POINT 6.1 Mental Health Care Professionals

The Evolution of the Mental Health System

Brief History of Mental Health Care

▶ CASE IN POINT 6.2 Rosenhan’s Classic Study of Hospital Patients’ Stigmatization

Deinstitutionalization

The Social Context to Deinstitutionalization

Early Alternatives to Institutionalization

Measuring “Success” of Deinstitutionalized Persons

Beyond Deinstitutionalization

“Model” Programs for Individuals with Mental Disorders

Intensive Case Management

Wraparound

▶ CASE IN POINT 6.3 Wraparound Milwaukee

Early Childhood Experiences and Prevention

The Battle Continues: Where Do We Go from Here?

Summary

SOCIAL AND HUMAN SERVICES IN THE COMMUNITY

Historical Notes about Social Welfare in Western Society

▶ CASE IN POINT 7.1 Poverty in America

▶ CASE IN POINT 7.2 The Grameen Bank

Specific Social Issues and Social Services

Child Maltreatment

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Chapter 8

Chapter 9

Intimate Partner Violence

Teen Pregnancy

The Elderly

Homelessness

▶ CASE IN POINT 7.3 How Do Cultures Differ on the Issue of Homelessness?

Summary

SCHOOLS, CHILDREN, AND THE COMMUNITY

The Early Childhood Environment

Child Care

Enrichment Education and Early Intervention

Self-Care Children

The Public Schools

Desegregation, Ethnicity, and Prejudice in the Schools

The Schools and Adolescents

▶ CASE IN POINT 8.1 Dual-Language Immersion Programs

▶ CASE IN POINT 8.2 Children of Divorce

Summary

LAW, CRIME, AND THE COMMUNITY

The Traditional Justice System

Introduction

Crime and Criminals

 
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