social psychology

Kerth O’Brien Portland State University Winter, 2020

Some slides © Kerth O’Brien 2020, other slides © McGraw-Hill 2020

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PSY 342 / SOC 342 SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY: SELF, ATTITUDES, SOCIAL INFLUENCE

Myers and Twenge 13/e, chapter 3 Slides © Kerth O’Brien 2020 and/or © McGraw-Hill 2020.

Kerth O’Brien Portland State University Winter, 2020

Some slides © Kerth O’Brien 2020, other slides © McGraw-Hill 2020

PREVIEW

How do we judge our social worlds, consciously and unconsciously?

How do we perceive our social worlds?

How do we explain our social worlds?

How do our social beliefs matter?

What can we conclude about social beliefs and judgments?

Perceiving Our Social Worlds 4

Priming: activating particular associations in memory • Can influence another thought or even

an action • Things we don’t even consciously

notice can subtly influence how we interpret and recall events • Kulechov effect

• Illustrates the idea that much of our social information processing is automatic

Kerth O’Brien Portland State University Winter, 2020

Some slides © Kerth O’Brien 2020, other slides © McGraw-Hill 2020

Perceiving our social worlds, cont’d 5

Priming, cont’d:

Embodied cognition: mutual influence of bodily sensations on cognitive preferences and social judgments

• Brain systems that process our bodily sensations communicate with the brain systems responsible for our social thinking

Perceiving our social worlds 6

Think of 3-4 circumstances in which it matters whether your early impressions of a person are accurate.

• What are some circumstances? • Why use your intuition in these

circumstances? Why not?

Kerth O’Brien Portland State University Winter, 2020

Some slides © Kerth O’Brien 2020, other slides © McGraw-Hill 2020

Intuitive judgments: why and why not

Some advocate “intuitive management”—tuning in to our hunches

Our thinking is partly automatic, partly controlled !Automatic processing: “implicit” thinking – effortless, habitual,

and without awareness; roughly corresponds to “intuition” and “gut feeling” – also known as System 1

!Controlled processing: “explicit” thinking – deliberate, reflective, and conscious—also known as System 2

Automatic thinking often involves schemas, emotional reactions, the effects of expertise, and snap judgments

Intuition has limits

Automatic, intuitive thinking can seem to “make us smart”; but the unconscious may not be as smart as once believed • Error-prone hindsight judgments • Capacity for illusion—for perceptual misinterpretations,

fantasies, and constructed beliefs

Note that although people create false beliefs, not all beliefs are false • To recognize falsification, it helps to know how it is done

Kerth O’Brien Portland State University Winter, 2020

Some slides © Kerth O’Brien 2020, other slides © McGraw-Hill 2020

Perceiving Our Social Worlds 9

Belief Perseverance Persistence of one’s initial conceptions, as when the basis for one’s belief is discredited but an explanation of why the belief might be true survives

Perceiving Our Social Worlds 10

Constructing Memories Misinformation effect Incorporating “misinformation” into one’s memory of

the event after witnessing an event and receiving misleading information about it

Kerth O’Brien Portland State University Winter, 2020

Some slides © Kerth O’Brien 2020, other slides © McGraw-Hill 2020

Perceiving Our Social Worlds 11

Reconstructing our past attitudes Reconstructing our past behavior

Judging Our Social World 12

The Limits of Intuition Hindsight Bias Perceptual Misinterpretations

Kerth O’Brien Portland State University Winter, 2020

Some slides © Kerth O’Brien 2020, other slides © McGraw-Hill 2020

Judging Our Social World 13

Overconfidence Phenomenon Tendency to be more confident than correct – to overestimate the accuracy of one’s beliefs Alas, incompetence feeds overconfidence!

Planning fallacy Stockbroker overconfidence Political overconfidence

Judging Our Social World 14

Confirmation Bias Tendency to search for information that confirms one’s preconceptions

Helps explain why our self-images are so stable Self-verification

Kerth O’Brien Portland State University Winter, 2020

Some slides © Kerth O’Brien 2020, other slides © McGraw-Hill 2020

Judging Our Social World 15

Remedies for Overconfidence Give prompt feedback to explain why statement is incorrect For planning fallacy, ask one to “unpack a task” – break it down into estimated time requirements for each part Get people to think of one good reason why their judgments might be wrong

Judging Our Social World 16

Heuristics: Mental Shortcuts Representativeness heuristic

Tendency to presume, sometimes despite contrary odds, that someone or something belongs to a particular group if resembling (representing) a typical member

Kerth O’Brien Portland State University Winter, 2020

Some slides © Kerth O’Brien 2020, other slides © McGraw-Hill 2020

Judging Our Social World 17

Heuristics: Mental shortcuts, snap decision rules

Availability heuristic Cognitive rule that judges the likelihood of things in terms of their availability in memory The more easily we recall something the more likely it seems

Availability heuristic 18

Kerth O’Brien Portland State University Winter, 2020

Some slides © Kerth O’Brien 2020, other slides © McGraw-Hill 2020

Two heuristics among many 19

Heuristic Definition Example But May Lead to…

Representativeness Snap judgments of whether someone or something fits a category

Deciding that Marie is a librarian rather than a trucker because she better represents one’s image of librarians

Discounting other important information

Availability Quick judgments of likelihood of events (how available in memory)

Estimating teen violence after school shootings

Overweighting vivid instances and thus, for example, fearing the wrong things

Judging Our Social World 20

Counterfactual Thinking

Imagining alternative scenarios and outcomes that might have happened, but didn’t

Related to our feelings of luck

Kerth O’Brien Portland State University Winter, 2020

Some slides © Kerth O’Brien 2020, other slides © McGraw-Hill 2020

Judging Our Social World 21

Illusory Thinking Our search for order in random events

Illusory correlation: Perception of a relationship where none exists, or perception of a stronger relationship than actually exists

Judging Our Social World 22

Illusory Thinking Illusion of control Perception of uncontrollable events as subject to

one’s control or as more controllable than they are Gambling Regression toward the average:

Statistical tendency for extreme scores or extreme behavior to return toward one’s average

Kerth O’Brien Portland State University Winter, 2020

Some slides © Kerth O’Brien 2020, other slides © McGraw-Hill 2020

23

Judging Our Social World

Moods and Judgments Good and bad moods

trigger memories of experiences associated with those moods

Moods color our interpretations of current experiences

A temporary good or bad mood strongly influenced people’s ratings of their videotaped behavior. Those in a bad mood

detected far fewer positive behaviors.

Explaining Our Social World 24

Attributing Causality: To the Person or the Situation

Misattribution Mistakenly attributing a behavior to the wrong source

Attribution theory Theory of how people explain others’ behavior Dispositional attribution Situational attribution

Kerth O’Brien Portland State University Winter, 2020

Some slides © Kerth O’Brien 2020, other slides © McGraw-Hill 2020

Explaining Our Social World 25

Inferring Traits We often infer that other people’s actions are

indicative of their intentions and dispositions

Commonsense Attributions (see next slide) Consistency Distinctiveness Consensus

Attribution 26

Kelley’s

Kerth O’Brien Portland State University Winter, 2020

Some slides © Kerth O’Brien 2020, other slides © McGraw-Hill 2020

Explaining Our Social World 27

Fundamental Attribution Error Tendency for observers to underestimate

situational influences and overestimate dispositional influences upon others’ behavior

Explaining our social world 28

Kerth O’Brien Portland State University Winter, 2020

Some slides © Kerth O’Brien 2020, other slides © McGraw-Hill 2020

Explaining Our Social World 29

Why do we make the attribution error? We observe others from a different perspective

than we observe ourselves Example: camera perspective bias

When recalling the past, we are like observers of someone else

We also find causes where we look for them And, western cultural bias facilitates it.

30

Expectations of Our Social World

Self-Fulfilling Prophecy (Robert Merton) Belief that leads to its own fulfillment

The movie “My Fair Lady” and the Greek myth Pygmalion & Galatea on which the movie’s story was based remind us of the power of expectations.

Kerth O’Brien Portland State University Winter, 2020

Some slides © Kerth O’Brien 2020, other slides © McGraw-Hill 2020

31

Teacher Expectations and Student Performance

The problem of experimenter expectations (demand characteristics) creating artifactual results in an experiment is an example of self-fulfilling prophecy.

Expectations of Our Social World 32

Getting from Others What We Expect Behavioral confirmation Type of self-fulfilling prophecy whereby people’s

social expectations lead them to behave in ways that cause others to confirm their expectations

Kerth O’Brien Portland State University Winter, 2020

Some slides © Kerth O’Brien 2020, other slides © McGraw-Hill 2020

33

Prototype of a study of behavioral confirmation

Self-fulfilling prophecy, cont’d.

or

– 34 -Self-fulfilling prophecy, cont’d.

C

BA

Kerth O’Brien Portland State University Winter, 2020

Some slides © Kerth O’Brien 2020, other slides © McGraw-Hill 2020

What Can We Conclude about Social Beliefs and Judgments?

Our information-processing powers are efficient and adaptive, but people sometimes form false beliefs • Trying hard doesn’t eliminate thinking biases • Our intuition is vulnerable to misjudgment • If anything, laboratory procedures overestimate our

intuitive powers • False impressions, interpretations, and beliefs can produce

serious consequences • Heuristic snap judgments, however, enable efficient

thinking and can aid in our survival

36

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Midterm comes soon.

 
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