What are some differences between male and female intimacy?

What are some differences between male and female intimacy?

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Can you please answer each Discussion question approx. 1/2page each approx. 137.5 words Discussion 1 Part 1: Describe at least 4 key differences between men and women described by Helen Fisher. AND Part 2: What are some differences between male and female intimacy? Readings & Activities Fisher Chapter 10: Men and Women Are Like Two Feet: They Need Each Other to Get Ahead Gender Differences in Mind Associated Media: The Nature of Love link= https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UybJzG_dts4 Gender Differences in the Brain by Helen Fisher, Ph.D. (important video!) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qSGd6Ojuw0Q Discussion 2 Read the material in the links to the left and check out the great videos below. 1. Are there any differences between gay and straight love? Why or why not? What does the evidence suggest regarding the similarities and differences between sexual majority and minority love? AND 2. Given what you have read, why is it so common for many heterosexuals to discuss and understand homosexuality only as same sex behavior, rather than as a complex identity no different than a heterosexual identity, with the drive to love and be loved at its core? NOTE: If you self identify as gay/lesbian/bi, what has been your experience with love? Share only what you are comfortable sharing. Readings & Activities [gaystraight-relationships-different/ link= https://glyswny.wordpress.com/lous-page/gaystraight-relationships-different/ ] Associated Media: iO Tillett Wright: Fifty shades of gay link = https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VAJ-5J21Rd0 Homosexual Love link = https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v1kcxSPLOEs Discussion 3 What is the difference between ″normal″ mood variation and clinically significant mood variations? Provide several examples. Readings Chapter 7 Discussion 4 Podcast Relationship Matters Podcast Number 55 “Sexualized, objectified, but not satisfied”: What are three key takeaways from this podcast? What is your experience/reaction?

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Chapter 7 Mood Disorders and Suicide

Abnormal Psychology Seventeenth Edition

Jill M. Hooley | James N. Butcher Matthew K. Nock | Susan Mineka

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Multimedia Directory

• Slide 14 Martha: Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) • Slide 29 Ann: Bipolar Disorder • Slide 36 Feliziano: Living with Bipolar Disorder • Slide 41 Depression • Slide 43 Research close-up: Brain Stimulation

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Learning Objectives (1 of 3)

1.1 Explain how we define abnormality and classify mental disorders.

1.2 Describe the advantages and disadvantages of classification.

1.3 Explain how culture affects what is considered abnormal and describe two different culture-specific disorders.

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Learning Objectives (2 of 3)

7.5 Describe the causal factors influencing the development and maintenance of bipolar disorders.

7.6 Explain how cultural factors can influence the expression of mood disorders.

7.7 Describe and distinguish between different treatments for mood disorders.

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Learning Objectives (3 of 3)

7.8 Describe the prevalence and clinical picture of suicidal behaviors.

7.9 Explain the efforts currently used to prevent and treat suicidal behaviors.

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Mood Disorders: An Overview

Mood disorders

•Defining feature = extremes of emotion (affect)

•Other symptoms or co- occurring disorders

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Mood Disorders: An Overview

Two key moods • Depression

• feelings of extraordinary sadness and dejection

• Mania • intense and unrealistic feelings of

excitement and euphoria

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Types of Mood Disorders

Unipolar depressive disorders

• Only depressive episodes

Bipolar depressive disorders

• Manic and depressive episodes

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The Prevalence of Mood Disorders

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Demographic Differences in the United States

Native Americans have relatively high rates of depression

African-Americans have relatively low rates

U.S. rates of unipolar depression inversely related to socioeconomic status

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Figure 7.1 Annual Prevalence of Mood Disorders Around the World This figure shows the annual (12-month) prevalence of mood disorders using data collected via household surveys in 17 different countries as part of the WHO World Mental Health Survey Initiative (Adapted from WHO World Mental Health Survey Consortium, 2004.)

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Unipolar Depressive Disorders

Major Depressive

Disorder (MDD)

• A major depressive episode without having manic, hypomanic, or mixed episodes

• Relapse and recurrence • May begin at any point in lifespan,

incidence rises during adolescence • May include additional symptoms

(specifiers)

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Table 7.1 Specifiers of Major Depressive Episodes

Specifier Characteristic Symptoms

With Melancholic Features Three of the following: early morning awakening, depression worse in the morning, marked psychomotor agitation or retardation, loss of appetite or weight, excessive guilt, qualitatively different depressed mood

With Psychotic Features Delusions or hallucinations (usually mood congruent); feelings of guilt and worthlessness common

With Atypical Features Mood reactivity—brightens to positive events; two of the four following symptoms: weight gain or increase in appetite, hypersomnia, leaden paralysis (arms and legs feel as heavy as lead), being acutely sensitive to interpersonal rejection

With Catatonic Features A range of psychomotor symptoms from motoric immobility to extensive psychomotor activity, as well as mutism and rigidity

With Seasonal Pattern At least two or more episodes in past 2 years that have occurred at the same time (usually fall or winter), and full remission at the same time (usually spring). No other nonseasonal episodes in the same 2-year period

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Martha: Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)

Click to see video with closed captioning

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Persistent Depressive Disorder

Mild to moderate version of depression

• Persistently depressed mood most of the day for at least 2 years

• Intermittent normal moods occur briefly

• Lifetime prevalence of 2.5 to 6% • Average duration is 4-5 years

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Other Forms of Depression

Bereavement- triggered depression

Postpartum depression

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Causal Factors in Unipolar Mood Disorders

Causal Factors

Biological causal factors

Psychological causal factors

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Biological Causal Factors

Genetic influences

Altered neuro- transmitter

activity

Hormone & immune system

regulation abnormalities

Neuro-physical & neuro-

anatomical influences

Sleep and biological rhythms

Sex differences

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Psychological Causal Factors

Stressful life events

Independent vs.

dependent

Vulnerability in response

to stress

Risk-related vulnerability

factors

Personality and cognitive

diatheses Early

adversity

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Psychological Causal Factors

Th eo

ris ts Freud

Behaviorists

Cognitive model

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Figure 7.4 Beck’s Cognitive Model of Depression According to Beck’s cognitive model of depression, certain kinds of early experiences can lead to the formation of dysfunctional assumptions that leave a person vulnerable to depression later in life if certain critical incidents (stressors) activate those assumptions. Once activated, these dysfunctional assumptions trigger automatic thoughts that in turn produce depressive symptoms, which further fuel the depressive automatic thoughts. (Adapted from Fennell, 1989.)

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Figure 7.5 Negative Cognitive Triad Beck’s cognitive model of depression describes a pattern of negative automatic thoughts. These pessimistic predictions center on three themes: the self, the world, and the future.

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Psychological Causal Factors

Th eo

rie s

Reformulated helplessness theory

Hopelessness theory

Excessive rumination

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Psychological Causal Factors In

te rp

er so

na l

ef fe

ct s

Lack of social support or social skills

Hostility and rejection from others

Marital dissatisfaction

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Bipolar and Related Disorders

Bipolar disorders

•Distinguished from unipolar disorders by presence of manic or hypomanic episodes

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Cyclothymic Disorder

Cyclical mood swings

• Less severe than those of bipolar disorder

• Symptoms present for at least 2 years • Lacking severe symptoms and

psychotic features of bipolar disorder

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Bipolar Disorders (I and II)

Bipolar I disorder

• Includes at least one manic or mixed episode

Bipolar II disorder

• Includes hypomanic episodes but not full-blown manic or mixed episodes

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Bipolar Disorders (I and II)

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Ann: Bipolar Disorder

Click to see video with closed captioning

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Figure 7.7 The Manic-Depressive Spectrum There is a spectrum of bipolarity in moods. All of us have our ups and downs, which are indicated here as normal mood variation. People with a cyclothymic personality have more marked and regular mood swings, and people with cyclothymic disorder go through periods when they meet the criteria for dysthymia (except for the 2-year duration) and other periods when they meet the criteria for hypomania. People with bipolar II disorder have periods of major depression and periods of hypomania. Unipolar mania is an extremely rare condition. Finally, people with bipolar I disorder have periods of major depression and periods of mania. (Adapted from Frederick K. Goodwin and Kay R. Jamison. (2009). Manic Depressive Illness. Copyright © 1990. Oxford University Press, Inc.)

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Causal Factors in Bipolar Disorders

Causal factors

Biological Psychological

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Biological Causal Factors

Heredity

Norepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine

Abnormalities in transportation of ions across neural membrane

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Biological Causal Factors

Cortisol levels

Shifting patterns of blood flow to prefrontal cortex

Disturbances in biological rhythms

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Psychological Causal Factors

Ps yc

ho lo

gi ca

l ca

us al

fa ct

or s Stressful life events

Personality variables

Low social support

Pessimistic attributional style

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Sociocultural Factors Affecting Unipolar and Bipolar Disorders

Symptoms of mood disorders

• Can differ widely across cultures and demographic groups

Prevalence of mood disorders

• Also differs across cultures

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Feliziano: Living with Bipolar Disorder

Click to see video with closed captioning

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Cross-Cultural Differences in Depressive Symptoms

• Western: psychological symptoms

• Non-Western: physical symptoms

Form of depression

varies across

cultures

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Cross-Cultural Differences in Prevalence

Rates of depression vary more than rates of bipolar disorder

Lifetime prevalence of depression is 17- 19% in the U.S., but only 1.5% in Taiwan

Reasons for different rates of depression are not yet clear

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Treatments and Outcomes

Pharmacotherapy

Alternative biological

treatments

Psychotherapy

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Pharmacotherapy

Antidepressants, mood- stabilizing, antipsychotic

drugs used to treat mood disorders

Lithium common mood stabilizer for bipolar

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Depression

Click to see video with closed captioning

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Alternative Biological Treatments

Electroconvulsive therapy

Transcranial magnetic stimulation

Deep brain stimulation

Bright light therapy

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Research close-up: Brain Stimulation

Click to see video with closed captioning

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Psychotherapy

Forms of effective psychotherapy • Cognitive-behavioral

therapy • Behavioral activation

treatment • Interpersonal therapy • Family and marital

therapy

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Suicide: The Clinical Picture and the Causal Pattern

Suicide risk significant factor

in all types of depression

Suicide is the 15th leading

cause of death in the world

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Figure 7.11 Suicide Around the World The rate of suicide varies dramatically in different parts of the world, as shown in this figure using data from the World Health Organization. More people die each year by suicide than by all other forms of violence combined. (Adapted from World Health Organization, http://www.who.int/mental_health/suicide-prevention/en.)

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Suicide: The Clinical Picture and the Causal Pattern

Distinguish between:

Suicidal self-injury

Nonsuicidal self-injury

(NSSI)

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The Clinical Picture and the Causal Pattern

Who Attempts and Dies by Suicide?

Psychological Disorders

Other Psychosocial Factors Associated with Suicide

Biological Causal Factors

Theoretical Models of Suicidal Behavior

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Who Attempts and Dies by Suicide?

Suicide attempts and age

Completed suicides and age

Gender differences

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Figure 7.12 Cumulative Prevalence of Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviors During Adolescence Data from the National Comorbidity Survey–Adolescent Supplement, a nationally representative survey of over 10,000 U.S. adolescents, show that very few people think about suicide during childhood, but then the percentage of people who have ever thought about suicide, plan suicide, or make a suicide attempt increases dramatically during adolescence. These data are from the United States (Nock et al., 2013), and a very similar pattern is observed in other countries around the world (Nock, Borges, Bromet, Alonso, et al., 2008). (Adapted from Nock, M. K., Green, J. G., Hwang, I., McLaughlin, K. A., Sampson, N. A., Zaslavsky, A. M., & Kessler, R. C. (2013). Prevalence, correlates and treatment of lifetime suicidal behavior among adolescents: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication–Adolescent Supplement (NCS- A). JAMA Psychiatry, 70, 300–310.)

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Psychological Disorders

Increase risk of

suicide

• Posttraumatic stress disorder

• Bipolar disorder • Conduct disorder • Intermittent explosive

disorder

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Other Psychosocial Factors Associated with Suicide

Psychosocial factors

Impulsivity

Aggression

Pessimism

Family psychopathology or instability

Hopelessness

Negative affectivity

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Biological Factors

Genetics

Reduced serotonergic activity

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Sociocultural Factors

Ethnicity

• Whites have higher rates of suicide than African Americans

Rates of suicide

• Vary across cultures and religions

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Theoretical Models of Suicidal Behavior

Diathesis–stress models

Joiner’s interpersonal- psychological

model of suicide

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Figure 7.13 Joiner’s Interpersonal-Psychological Model of Suicide Joiner proposes that people desire to die by suicide when they perceive that they are a burden to others and experience a sense of thwarted belongingness. However, they cannot act on this suicidal desire unless they also have acquired the capacity for suicide. When these three factors come together, Joiner argues, a person is at high risk for suicide. (Adapted from Joiner, 2005.)

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Treatment of Mental Disorders

Prevention of suicide can take

the form of treatment of the

underlying mental disorder(s)

Antidepressant medication or lithium

Benzodiazepines

Cognitive-behavioral therapy

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Crisis Intervention

Cope with immediate

crisis

Maintain supportive

contact

Help show that distress is impairing judgment

Help show distress in

not endless

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Focus on High-Risk Groups and Other Measures

Provide treatment aimed directly at decreasing suicidal thoughts and

behaviors among those already experiencing these

outcomes

Use cognitive-behavioral therapy for suicide

prevention for use with adolescents who have

attempted suicide

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Unresolved Issues

Is there a right to die?

Not all societies agree that others should interfere with suicide

Challenging ethical and legal questions remain

 
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