Within the non-experimental category, descriptive and correlational research are sub-categories.

Within the non-experimental category, descriptive and correlational research are sub-categories.

 Initial Post is due in 8 hours of 250 words. I also attached two posts  of other students, so you can reply it. NO Plagiarism. I need Turnitin Report. All sources must be cited in proper references.  Plz check it carefully.

To prepare for this discussion, read the instructor guidance, and Sections 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 3.3, “Steps” in Section 3.4, 3.5, 4.3, and Chapter 5 of the Newman (2016) textbook.

In contrast to qualitative designs, which are all basically non-experimental and descriptive, quantitative research designs may be either experimental or non-experimental. Within the non-experimental category, descriptive and correlational research are sub-categories.

Using the Ashford University Library databases, look for a scholarly/peer-reviewed quantitative research study on the topic you selected in Week 1. In your initial post,

  • Appraise the differences between experimental and non-experimental research.
  • Differentiate between a correlational study and an experimental study.
  • State the hypothesis being tested in the selected quantitative research study.
  • Identify the major variables and categorize them as independent or dependent.
  • Describe the methods and results of the study.
  • Determine whether the study is descriptive, correlational, or experimental, and explain why it fits this classification.

Document your sources in APA style (Links to an external site.), with in-text citations and references listed at the end of the post. For additional guidance see the Citing Within Your Paper (Links to an external site.) and Formatting Your References List (Links to an external site.) resources from the Ashford Writing Center.

Guided Response: Read several classmates’ posts and respond to at least two of them. Do you agree with your colleague’s assessment of the design classification of the study he or she selected? Why or why not? Check your own thread for replies and answer any questions from others about the research study you presented.

Itzell Moreno

2 Feb 20202 Feb at 7:13

Manage discussion entry

The main difference between experimental and non-experimental research is that in experimental research, the researcher manipulates the environment, variables and controls of their research, whilst in non-experimental research, the researcher doesn’t manipulate the subjects or variables, they merly observe and analyze. In correlational studies, relationships amongst variables are found, but the cause is not identified. In experimental studies, “the primary goal is to explain thoughts, feelings, and behaviors and to make causal statements” (Newman, 2016, p. 2.1).

In the selected quantitative research selected, Patterns of Trauma Exposure in Childhood and Adolescence and Their Associations With Behavioral Well-Being, the hypothesis of the study is that youth (all ages before 18) in the U.S. that have been exposed to more than one type of potentially traumatic events (PTEs; e.g., physical assault, sexual assault, and witnessing violence) are affected in their behavioral functioning. The four major variables being tested are as follows:

1. Traumatic events (independent): physically hurt, forced to see or do something sexual, unexpected seperation from caregiver, seen or heard physical fight or threats to hurt, etc.

2. Parents and youth report on Traumatic event (dependent): exposure to mentioned above. 

3. Covariant (independent): Gender and race

4. Outcomes (dependent): Traumatic history screen, Child PTSS Symptom scale, Short modes and feelings questionnaire, etc. 

The methods of the study involved 701 youths (ages 7-17) that were part of a statewide evidence-based treatment dissemination project; and they lived with at least one of their biological parents. Furthermore, the families fell under the low-income population. The parents and youth were part of trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (separately; through face-to-face/interviews). Data was input into, ” aweb-based system developed to support quality assurance and program evaluation activities related to TF-CBT implementation. The evaluation procedures were approved by the institutional review boards of Yale University School of Medicine and the Connecticut Department of Children and Families” (Connell, 2018, p.520). The study found that caregivers and youth reported similar levels of PTE (although youth would report higher than caregivers) and their therapists reported similar behavioral problems and levels of functioning. Thus supporting the hypothesis that youth exposed to PTE develop behavioral problems; since the study also recorded caregivers, it is safe to say that behavioral problems and levels of functioning affecting them, ended up affecting their children as well. The study is correlational because it measured variables and their relationship to each other. The main relationship tested was PTE of youth in correlation to behavioral problems, however caregivers were also part of the study. In the findings, caregivers suffered PTE, causing them to have behavioral problems that affected their children causing the same exposure and behavioral problems issue; showing not only one relationship, but a continuous pattern. 


Connell, C. M., Pittenger, S. L., & Lang, J. M. (2018). Patterns of Trauma Exposure in Childhood and Adolescence and Their Associations With Behavioral Well-Being. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 31(4), 518–528. doi: 10.1002/jts.22315

Newman, M. (2016).  Research methods in psychology  (2nd ed.). San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc.

Kelly Kirkpatrick


Hello Class, 

The experimental design gives researchers permission to manipulate the subjects, whereas non-experimental research is a group of subjects that can’t be manipulated. The researcher in correlational studies try to find a like or some associations from variables, the experimental studies researcher finds a change than monitors the effects. (Newman, 2016)

     The quantitative research that I selected is the Effectiveness of Music Therapy on Depression, Anxiety, and Stress among Haemodialysis patients. The hypothesis is Haemodialysis patients usually experience a high level of stress, anxiety, and depression. Relieving these psychological issues helps patients cope and calm music therapy has been found to be effective. The variables are to find differences in blood pressure, heart rate among subjects after music therapy. 

     The methods and materials used were a quasi-experimental research design with a pretest of a random control group. The data collected used a demographic questionnaire and the DASS tool which is (Depression Anxiety Stress Scale) 40 subjects were male between the ages of 44-64 yrs and among those 40 only 20 received the music therapy. The differences in depression, anxiety, and stress of the control group did change. The experimental group had a difference in blood pressure after the music therapy, this concluded that music therapy is effective in reducing the level of depression, anxiety and stress with the hemodialysis cases and the music therapy did relieve depression, anxiety and stress for patients on Haemodialysis. 


Fernandes, S. T., & D’silva, F. (2019). Effectiveness of Music Therapy on Depression, Anxiety and Stress among Haemodialysis Patients. International Journal of Nursing Education11(1), 124–129. https://doi-org.proxy-library.ashford.edu/10.5958/0974-9357.2019.00024.2 (Links to an external site.)

Newman, M. (2016).  Research methods in psychology  (2nd ed.). San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc.

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